The pronunciation of the Portuguese of Portugal

Sound sample acknowledgements and bibliography

Phonetic transcriptions and descriptions are insufficient to make clear the riches of the pronunciation of any language, even to the experienced phonetician and especially so to the average reader. Moreover, the Portuguese language has many sounds which are not familiar from other widely known languages, and which one wouldn’t easily expect just from looking at the written language. This is why I included a large number of sound samples, each a small fragment illustrating one or a few words.
Most samples were taken from commercially available music CDs, old records and radio transmissions; some are original recordings kindly sent to me by people who patiently answered my questions in news groups sci.lang and soc.culture.portuguese.

I hope and think this usage of copyrighted material is permitted under Article 10: Fair use of the Berne convention, and Artikel 15a of the Dutch copyright act: Nederlandse Auteurswet 1912.

Below is a list of the samples that I used, with references to their sources.

MP3 format

To save disk space, the samples are in MP3-format. To listen to them, you need a player for this type of compressed files, such as WinAmp. This site of origin is rather slow, so you may want to look for other download addresses by looking for "winamp181.exe" in search engines (there are newer versions too). Some that I found are Get WinAmp and this one and this. Also look here.

If you’re lucky, the installation procedure will automatically associate the file name extension ".mp3" with the application you have on your system to play such files. If it didn’t, you must do it yourself. Under Win95 and above, this is done in Windows Explorer (Dutch: Windows Verkenner). For Netscape browsers, this may not be sufficient. There you must add the mp3 extension to the list of Helper Applications, and specify which application (WinAmp or something else) you want to use for it.

Converters to and from MP3 are widely available, here for example: The Sonic Spot. Via that page I found BladeEnc, which is what I used to convert from WAV to MP3.

Even though the samples are compressed, if you are connected through a phone line they will still cause several seconds of delay time before you can listen to them. If you expect you are going to listen to many of the samples, it may be worth your while to make a full local copy of the html files and all the samples. They will run much faster from your local hard-disk. Tools are available to make that task easier, for example: Grab-a-Site, by Blue Squirrel and Teleport Pro, by TenMax.

Cristina Branco

Note that a large proportion of the samples comes from songs sung by Cristina Branco, not just because they make good examples of Portuguese pronunciation, but also because her voice, and the music and accompanying instruments, are so beautiful. Part of that beauty, though not all, comes from the beauty of the Portuguese language, which to me is certainly one of the most beautiful languages in the world (and I’ve heard many), if not the most beautifully sounding language per se. There aren’t many languages in which nearly every word, even among the most common ones, both written and spoken, is like a painting of unprecedented splendour, every time again. I know one: Portuguese, and especially that of homeland Portugal.

Origins of samples used

Quick-click to phonemes:
/p/ /b/ /f/ /v/ /m/ /w/ /t/ /d/ /s/ /z/ /n/ /l/ /r/ /S/ /Z/ /J/ /L/ /j/ /k/ /g/ /R\/
/i/ /e/ /E/ /1/ /3/ /a/ /u/ /o/ /O/ /i~/ /e~/ /3~/ /u~/ /o~/
/ui/ /oi/ /Oi/ /3i/ /Ei/ /ai/ /ou/ /eu/ /Eu/ /au/
/u~i~/ /o~i~/ /3~i~/ /3~u~/

Cristina Branco, Murmúrios. MW records, Music & Words MWCD 4023.
Available from
See also Melo Music, and Cristina Branco Booking Office
3. As certezas do meu mais brilhante amor (Sergio Godinho) porta /pOrt3/ [pOrt3] Vowel difference between porto and porta, see examples under /p/ and /n/. See also Regular alternations, item Pronouns.
ganhar cor /gaJarkor/ [gaJarkor] Clear /a/ sound in unstressed position, and before a written nh. See note 24.
Homens e faces e os seus gestos como escritas
(no sample, much better to buy it, because it is so beautiful)
[Om3~i~zifas1ziuSseuSZeStuS komuSkrit3S] The essiness of the language, see note 16d.
4. Saudade (Luís Vaz de Camões / Custódio Castelo) morrerei /muR\1r3i/
meus olhos dirão /meusOLusdir3~u~/ [meuzOLuZDir3~u~]
mágoas /magu3s/ [magu3S]
tenho /teJu/ [t3iJu] e before nh as âi
5. Mágoa (Fernando Pessoa / Custódio Castelo) se existe /s11zist1/ [siziSt1] Illustrates how the high schwa turns into [i] before a vowel
6. Fim (Maria Duarte / Custódio Castelo) assim /3si~/ [3si~]
amor sem fim /3mors3~i~fi~/ [3mors3~i~fi~]
perder /p1rder/ [p1rder] tending to [p1rdEr] See note 8.
8. Lírios (Maria Duarte / Custódio Castelo) lírios /lirius/ [liriuS]
dês /des/ [deS] See note 8.
12. Fado das Sedes (Maria Duarte / Custódio Castelo) da água que não correu /d3agw3k1n3~u~kuR\eu/ [dagw3k1n3~u~kuR\eu] Uvular/lingual rr and alternating it
14. Pombas Brancas (José Afonso) das sendas /d3sse~d3s/ [d3Sse~d3S] Final and initial /s/ do not assimilate.
pombas brancas /po~b3sbr3~k3s/ [po~b3ZBr3~k3S]
Cristina Branco in Holland. Círculo de Cultura Portuguesa na Holanda, CCPH002.
3. Vai o bem fugindo (Luís Vaz de Camões / Custódio Castelo) vai o bem fugindo /vaiub3~i~fuZi~du/ [vaiuB3~i~fuZi~du] Labiodental /v/ versus bilabial [B] (allophone of /b/)
6. Fado louco (Manuel D’Andrade / Custódio Castelo) fado louco /fadulouku/ [faDulouku<vls>] Voiceless vowels
11. Fado das Sedes (Maria Duarte / Custódio Castelo) da água que não correu /d3agw3k1n3~u~kuR\eu/ [dagw3k1n3~u~kur:eu] Uvular/lingual rr and alternating it
Cristina Branco, Post-Scriptum. L’empreinte digitale, ED 13121.
Available from
1. Ai Vida (Jorge Fernando) uma voz sem tom nem tempo /um3vOzs3~i~to~n3~i~te~pu/ [um3vOZs3~i~to~n3~i~te~pu] Final /z/ and initial /s/ do not assimilate.
2. Post-Scriptum (Maria Teresa Horta / Custódio Castelo) com raiva surda /ko~R\ajv3surD3/
3. Toada em Realejo (Maria Duarte / Custódio Castelo) afago /3fagu/ [3fagu] Phonemes g, b, and d can be plosive or fricative. See also comigo
afago /3fagu/ [3faGu]
5. Abalara (Miguel Carvalhinho) velejar /v1l1Zar/
sem leme que corte as vagas feitas /kOrt13svag3s/ [kOr\`t3Zvag3S] Pre-consonantal /r/.
6. Não oiças a minha voz (Maria Manuel Cid / Custódio Castelo) vai antes p’ró meu jardim /p3r3umeuZ3rdi~/ [prOmeuZ3rdi~] Merging sounds
8. Prelúdio (Miguel Torga / Custódio Castelo) (No sample) comigo (with me) /kumigu/ [kumigu] or [kumiGu] No sample, you can buy the CD is you want to hear it. See also afago
11. Lisboa (Cristina Branco / Custódio Castelo) Lisboa /lisbo3/ [liZbo3] Phonemes g, b, and d can be plosive or fricative. See also comigo
Lisboa /lisbo3/ [l<vzd>iZBo3]
que Deus deu /k1deusdeu/ [k1DeuZDeu]
Cristina Branco canta Slauerhoff. Círculo de Cultura Portuguesa na Holanda, CCPH003.
Available from
2. O descobridor (J. Slauerhoff / Pt. translation Mila Vidal Paletti / Custódio Castelo) nada os unia /nad3usuni3/ [naDOzuni3] Merging sounds
uma névoa ao longe a querer romper /k1rerR\o~per/ [k1rerR\o~per] Similarity between crer and querer, due to very short /1/.
Final /r/ and initial /R\/ that do not assimilate. See also uvular/lingual rr.
mas era tarde demais /tard1d1mais/ [tar\`D1D1maiS] Retroflexion of /r/ before dentals.
3. Aspiração (J. Slauerhoff / Pt. translation Mila Vidal Paletti / Custódio Castelo) para sempre (for ever) /p3r3se~pr1/ [pr3se~pr1] Closedness of the "high" schwa /1/.
Horizonte also as illustration of an unstressed open /O/.
7. Angústia (J. Slauerhoff / Pt. translation Mila Vidal Paletti / Custódio Castelo) horizonte /Orizo~nt1/ [Orizo~nt1]
8. Saudade (J. Slauerhoff / Pt. translation Mila Vidal Paletti / Custódio Castelo) margens /marZ3~i~s/ [marZ3~i~S]
Cristina Branco, Sensus. Universal Classic France, 067 168-2, LC 00699.
Available from
12. Pastoras da Estrela (Miguel Carvalhinho) Alegres estão (no sample, buying the CD is warmly recommended) /3lEgr1s1st3~u~/ [3lEgr1z1St3~u~] Reappearing vowel in word-initial "es" before consonant.


Amália Rodrigues, Fado Português EMI-SCX6233.
2. Pedro Gaiteiro (A. Oulman - A. Feliciano de Castilho) com Pedro Gaiteiro /pedrug3it3iru/ [peDrug3it3iru]
Amália Rodrigues, The Best of Fado. Intermusic S.A., 1998 IMC Music Ltd., DBG 53026.
1. Triste Sina (Nóbrega e Sousa / Jerónimo Bragança) de lés a lés o céu é cor de cinza /d1lEs3lEsosEuEkord1si~z3/ [d1lEz3lEzosEuEkorD1si~z3] See note 8.
sem marés /m3rEs/ [m3rES]
porto /portu/ [por\`tu] Slightly retroflexed /r/. See also 4, item 8.
rasgando /R\3sg3~du/ [r:3Zg3~du] Uvular/lingual rr and alternating it
2. Céu da minha rua (Silva Tavares / João Nobre) rua /R\u3/ [r:u3]
15. Aquela rua (L. Barbosa / J. Santos) rua /R\u3/ [R\u3]
roda /R\Od3/ [R\OD3]
9. Fado da Adiça (Rodrigo de Melo / Armandinho) sexto sentido /seStuse~tidu/ [s3iStuse~tiDu] e before x as âi
não é fadista quem quer /n3~u~Ef3dist3k3~i~kEr/ [n3~u~Ef3diSt3k3~i~kEr@] Extra schwa after final /r/. I am not sure if this can be related to the two phonemic schwas in the language, /1/ and /3/, or that it is more like a real reduction vowel [@], similar to what is often heard in French: "avec" sounding as if written "aveque", and "six" as if "sisse".
muito /mu~i~tu/ [mu~i~tu] Nasalised diphthong /u~i~/, nasalisation not visible orthographically.
CD2 - 14. Que Deus me perdoe (Silva Tavares / Frederico Valério) chego a querer na verdade /Segu3k1rern3v1rdad1/ [SeGu3k1rern3v1rDaD1] Similarity between crer and querer, due to very short /1/


Mísia, Tanto menos tanto mais. 1993 BM Ariola LC00116
4. Órfão de um Sonho Suspenso (Fernando Pessoa / José Cavalheiro) São felizes têm pena. /t3~i~3~i/ [t3~i~3~i] Double nasalised diphthongs
Mísia, Garras dos Sentidos. 1998 Erato Disques S.A.S. 3984-22731-2
1. Garras dos Sentidos (Agustina Bessa-Luis / Popular) Da má sorte defendidos, os homens de bom juízo, têm nas mãos prodigiosas, verdes garras dos sentidos. /t3~i~3~i/ [t3~i~3~i] Double nasalised diphthongs
3. Estátua falsa (Armando Machado / Mário de Sá-Carneiro) só de ouro falso os meus olhos se douram /sOd1ouru/ [sODiouru] Fronting of /1/ before another vowel
4 and 10. Fado do retorno (Armandinho / Lídia Jorge) os rostos de nós dois /usR\ostusd1nOsdois/ [uZR\oStuSD1nOZDoiS] Difference between /O/ and /o/. See also /oi/ and /Oi/.
Because of the /s/ which turns into /Z/, "nós dois" wouldn’t have been much different, if at all, from "nóiz dois" which makes the examples almost suitable to show the difference between oi and ói. It can be heard, but the samples makes clear that the difference is small.
amor é muito cedo, e tarde uma palavra /tard1/ [tar\`D] Retroflexion of /r/ before dentals.
2. Dança de Mágoas (Raúl Ferrão / Fernando Pessoa) sem tristeza /tristez3/ [triStez3] Phonetic quality of /e/ and /E/. See note 8.
mesa /mez3/ [mez3]
Mísia, Paixões Diagonais. Erato Disques S.A.S. 3984-28184-9
1. Paixões Diagonais (Miguel Ramos / João Monge) duma estrela /Dum3Strel3/ [Dum3Strel3]
esta tristeza /ESt3triStez3/ [ESt3triStez3]
nossa mesa /nOs3mez3/ [nOs3mez3]
sol-pôr /Strel3/ [Strel3] Difference between /O/ and /o/
do que sabem as vielas /sab3~i~/ [sab3~i~] or [saB3~i~] Realisation of /b/ as [B] or [b] ((weakly) fricative vs. (almost) plosive)
do que sabem as cristais /sab3~i~/ [sab3~i~] or [saB3~i~]
8. Minha alma de amor sedenta (Alfredo Marceneiro / António dos Santos - Mascarenhas Barreto) aos céus, ao sol, e à lua /aussEusausOlialu3/ [auSsEuzausOlialu3] See note 8.
9. Nascimento de Vénus (Ricardo J. Dias, Rosa Lobato de Faria) Na espuma das marés /n31spum3d3sm3rEs/ [n3Spum3d3Zm3rES] See note 8.


Francisco Fialho, O Fado. ARC Music Int., EUCD 1075.
10. Vida Nocturna (Fernando Farina / D.R.) vida nocturna, refúgio de quem é triste /nOturn3/ [nOturn3] An unstressed written o does not always turn into /u/. See unstressed open /O/.
/R\1fuZiu/ [r:1fuZu] Uvular/lingual rr
/k3~i~/ [3~i~] Similarities between dissimilar sounds, see note 9.
/trist1/ [triSt1] Central /1/ merging with front /i/ in Brazilian pronunciation © see note 23, item 4),
Dental d and t becoming palatalised before front vowel in Brazilian pronunciation © see note 23, item 3),
toda a vida /tod33vid3/ [toDaviD3]

The sound difference between the open /a/ and half-open /3/. See also falamos / falámos and lágrima.

See also the merging of a and o and of merging two a’s.

tem não sei que de mentira /t3~i~n3~u~s3ik1d1me~tir3/ [t3~i~n3~u~s3ik1D1me~tir3] Constrast between /3~i~/ (tem), /3i/ (sei) and /e~/ (mentira).
11. Minha mãe (Paco Gonzales / Balaido) minha mãe, que desventura, ninguém quer amar ninguém /miJ3m3~i~ k1d1sve~tur3 ni~g3~i~kEr3marni~g3~i~/ [miJ3m3~i~ k1dZve~tur3 ni~g3~i~kEr3marni~g3~i~] Constrast between /3~i~/ (mãe, ninguem) and /e~/ (desventura).
12. Abril em Portugal (Jos Gallardo / Raul Ferraudo) lágrimas /lagrim3s/ [lagrim3S] The sound difference between the open /a/ and half-open /3/. See also falamos / falámos and toda a vida.


Fado Capital 3, Various Artists. Ovação, 1997, OV-CD-106107.
6. Maldito Fado (D.R.), sung by António Mello Correa ilusões /iluso~i~s/ [iluzO~i~S]
um dia fatal /u~di3f3tal/ [u~di3f3tAl<vel>]
sua mãe /su3m3~i~/ [su3m3~i~]


Celeste Rodrigues, The Art of the Portuguese Fado. Olympic Records, New York, no. 6134.
3. Canção do mar (Frederico de Brito (Britinho) / Ferrer Trindade) fui bailar no meu batel /fui/ [fui]

It seems Amália Rodigues sang this song (but read note 12). Dulce Pontes made it famous in 1993 (in my memory it was 1995), but I prefer this version from an old record sung by Celeste Rodrigues.

Full lyrics of the sung can be found here and here and here.


Dulce Pontes , Lágrimas. 1993/1999 IMC Music S.A., SMP 850500.
Available from
2. Se voaras mais ao perto (José Afonso) andorinha de asa preta /3~duriJ3/ [3~duriJ3] Merging two a’s.
o que nos quer a andorinha /33~duriJ3/ [a~duriJ3]
5. Que amor não me engana (José Afonso) assim tu souberas, irmã cotovia /irm3~/ [irm3~]
Dulce Pontes, Caminhos. 1999 IMC Music Ltd., SMP 850101.
Available from
5. Catedral de Lisboa (Popular / José Afonso) Na catedral de Lisboa /n3k3t1dral/ [n3k3t1drAl] Similarity of this sound and what is written "er", "ir" or "ur" in non-rhotic English. See note 11 for more about this.
É a rainha que parte /R\3"iJ3/ [r:3"iJ3] The letters a and i are in separate syllables, but no acute accent is needed on the i, due to the following nh. See also note 10, about the transcription.
Dulce Pontes, O primeiro Canto. 1999 Polydor, 543 135-2.
Available from
13. Porto de mágoas (Dulce Pontes / Dulce Pontes & Leonardo Amuedo) o mesmo riso, o mesmo pranto /R\izu/ [r:izu]

Uvular/lingual rr and alternating it. Dulce Pontes uses the uvular double rr consistently (including in the song that this sample was taken from), except in this word "riso", where it is conspicuously lingual. She sings the complete lyrics twice in this song, and with consistently inconsistent double rr’s. Cristina Branco treats her rr’s the same, Amália switched more often, while others like Francisco Fialho use the lingual rr throughout.

Musical aside: after Cristina Branco’s Pombas Brancas I thought there could hardly be anything more beautiful in Portuguese music. But this "Porto de mágoas" by Dulce Pontes can compete with it. Also listen to those last chords, they’re unbelievably beautiful.

um lírio aberto a ser na alvorada /u~lirju3bErtu3sern33lvurad3/ Difference between /E/ and /e/. See note 8.
Esperar como quem sonha (No sample, just this song makes it worthwhile to buy the CD). /Sp1rarkomuk3~i~soJa3/, not /sOJ3/ Closing effect of nasal consonants, note 14.
5. O que for, há-de ser (Dulce Pontes / Dulce Pontes) para que o possa ver /pOs3ver/ [pOs3veX]

Here Dulce Pontes, who is not from Brazil, uses the very un-Portuguese Brazilian final uvular r. More on this in note 21.


Mafalda Arnauth, Mafalda Arnauth. 1999 EMI-Valentim de Carvalho, Música Lda, 0724352088720.
Available from
1. Meus lindos olhos (Mafalda Arnauth) Tu que nasces e renasces /tuk1naSs1ziR\1naSs1S/ The essiness of the language, see note 16d.
(No sample, much better to buy it, because it is so beautiful)
Mafalda Arnauth, Esta voz que me atravessa. 2001 EMI-Valentim de Carvalho, Música Lda, 7243 5 31557 2 8.
Available from
2. Sentidos
(Mafalda Arnauth / Amélia Muge)
notas que mantêm a rima /m3~t3i~3i~/ [m3~t3i~3i~] Difference between single diphthong as in mantém and double diphthong as in mantêm. See also grapheme êm.
Mafalda Arnauth, Encantamento. 2003 EMI-Valentim de Carvalho, Música Lda, 7243 5 84608 2 7.
Available from
11. Canção
(António Botto / João Braga)
pela ambição (10th line; no sample) /pel33~bis3~u~/ [pela~bis3~u~] Merging of two /3/'s into a single [a], even if the second one is a nasalised /3~/.


Camané, Uma noite de fados. EMI 7 243 8 32905 2 9.
Available from
4. Uma vez que já tudo se perdeu
(Ruy Belo / José Mário Branco)
Não temas porque tudo recomeça
Nada se perde por mais que aconteça
See note 8: difference between half-open and half-close e sounds.
Como o fogo alastrava em redor
Céus e canção promessa e amor
Difference between half-open and half-close o sounds.
15. Esta contínua saudade
(Vasco de Lima Couto / Joaquim Campos)
É que eu no vento procuro todo o bem que posso dar em todo o mal que me fazes /prOkuru/ Open /O/ in unstressed position.
Camané, Na linha da vida. EMI 7243 4 93832 2 7.
Available from
10. Guitarra, guitarra
(Jorge Fernando)
Pois se te ouço chorar eu também choro
(no sample, much better to buy it, because it is so beautiful)
[poiSs1tiousuSurareut3~b3~i~SOru] The essiness of the language, see note 16d.
Camané, Esta coisa da alma. EMI 7243 5 25001 2 3.
Available from
6. Escada sem corrimão
(David Mourão Ferreira / Reinaldo Varela)
mais estragadas estão
(no sample)
[majz1Str3gad3St3~w~] Word-initial es, see note 20.


Language course Como Vai (1990? or even earlier than that?) by Teleac (of in het Nederlands: Teleac)
Supporting radio lesson no. 10 falamos (we speak) /f3l3mus/ [f3l3muS] The sound difference between the open /a/ and half-open /3/. See also toda a vida and lágrima.
falámos (we spoke) /f3lamus/ [f3lamuS]
entramos (we come in) /e~tr3mus/ [e~tr3muS]
entrámos (we came in) /e~tramus/ [e~tramuS]


Luís Cília, Meu País. 1970 Le Chant du Monde, G.U. LDX 74308ARC Music Int., EUCD 1075.
(side 1) 4. Resiste (Luís Cília) nova aurora /nOv3/ [nOv3] Vowel difference between porto and porta, see examples under /p/ and /n/. See also Regular alternations.
novo cantar /novu/ [novu]
(side 1) 6. Exílio (Manuel Alegre / Luís Cília) venho dizer-vos que não tenho medo /veJu/ [v3iJu], /teJu/ [t3iJu] e before nh as âi
(side 2) 7. Regresso (Jonas Negalha / Luís Cília) para os heróis /p3r3us1rOis/ [p3rOz1rOiS] Merging sounds


Le Brésil de Vinicius de Moraes. (P) 1975/1978 EMI C064-92790 PM 231. Sung by Vinícius de Moraes, Maria Creuza and Toquinho.
(side 1) 7. Irene (Caetano Veloso) quero ver Irene rir (Full lyrics here and here.) /iren1R\ir/ [ireniR\iR\] Uvular r in Brazil, which tends to h. See note 23, item 5.
Irene ri /iren1R\i/ [irenihi]


Erasmo Carlos, Cachaça Mecânica (Roberto Carlos / Erasmo Carlos). (P) 1974 Polydor Intersong Pub. 2121 249.
Cachaça Mecânica Comprou fiado para fazer sua mortalha, tomou um gole de cachaça e deu no pé /mortaL3/ [moXtaLa], /gOl1/ [gOLi], /d1/ [d'i]

Uvular r in Brazil after vowel, before final consonant. See note 23, item 6.

Palatalisation of t, d, and l before i and 1. See note 23, item 3.
See also note 23, item 4 for the [i] sound at the end of the word.

aquela tarde /tard1/ [taGd'i]


Chico Buarque de Hollanda. (P) 1975 RCA Records FPL1 0100 AKAY 17589.
3. Sonho de um carnaval Que gente triste possa entrar na dança, que gente grande saiba ser criança /d3~s3/ [d3~sa], /gr3~d1/ [gr3~d'i], /kri3~s3/ [kri3~sa] Although the open and half-open a-sounds are not distinguished in Brazil, and are all open, the nasalised /3~/ in Brazil and Portugal are very much alike. See note 23, item 4.
For triste and grande, see also note 23, item 3, and this sample from Portugal: triste ©,


Tonico & Tinoco. East West (Warner Music Brasil Ltda.) 2.11.800.002.
2. Chico Mineiro Alembrando daqueles tempo que não mais hai de vortá.
(vortá = dialectal variant of what is "voltar = return" in standard language).
/vultar/ [vor\`ta]
Mas porém chegou o dia que o Chico apartou-se de mim. /pur3~i~/ [pur\`e~], /3partou/ [apar\`to]


Paulo de Sousa
Samples kindly sent to me by email dói /dOi/ [dOi] Difference between /oi/ and /Oi/
foi /foi/ [foi]
falaram /f3l'ar3~u~/ [f3l'ar3~u~]
falarão /f3l3r'3~u~/ [f3l3r'3~u~]
partiram /p3rt'ir3~u~/ [p3rt'ir3~u~]
partirão /p3rtir'3~u~/ [p3rtir'3~u~]
Manuel Peres Alonso
Samples kindly sent to me by email dói /dOi/ [dOi] Difference between /oi/ and /Oi/
foi /foi/ [foi]
Own recordings. My own attempts at pronouning the language.
This expression is from the book Com os holandeses by J. Rentes de Carvalho, chapter "Crenças. O auxílio aos países subdesenvolvidos", 4th paragraph. Todos esses esforços [toduzes1z1SforsuS] or [toduzesSfOrsuS] The essiness of the language, see note 16d. See also note 20, word-initial es.
Newsreader Cecília Carmos in the RTP’s late night journal of June 26, 2008 (also available for Real Player), from 05m30s onwards.
Topic: Higher fuel prices cause financial problems for TAP Air Portugal: A loss of 102 million euros.
todos os esforços são necessários /toduzuz1SforsuSs3~u~n1s1sarjuS/
Social sciences Ciências sociais [sie~si3SsusiaiS]


RadioDifusão Portuguesa Internacional
A political discussion on RDPI, September 13, 2000 eleições /1l3iso~i~s/ [ileisO~i~S] Similarities between dissimilar sounds, see phoneme /o~i~/ and note 9.
condições /ko~diso~i~s/ [ko~disO~i~S]


Capitães de Abril
Maria de Medeiros in "The making of", from the DVD. Suponho que ...... terá sido o próprio encontro com [o Maia] [...] /1:/ [1::] or [M::] Phonetic nature of /1/, see note 15.
Chapter 13, Terreiro do Paço Maia! .... — O que é isto? [wkjEjStw] Extreme compression, note 16 b.
Chapter 20, O diário Olha que menina tão bonita. Como é que te chamas? — Amélia. — Ah, que bonito nome! [wjktS3m3S] Extreme compression, note 16 b.


Sources of info about close/open vowels in singular/plural of words, and related subjects

The info from these three sources above was kindly brought to my attention by Ekkehard Dengler, in this usenet message, which Google archived here.

Old books about Portuguese orthography and phonology and phonetics

This chapter is now in a separate document.