Links to linguistic and phonetic glossaries and explanations
Many terms from linguistics and from phonetic and phonological theory are
used in this document without explanation. Instead of setting up a glossary
of terms myself, I refer to some sites on Internet where you might find
- IPA symbols chart
- Spoken IPA chart,
by Jonathan Dowse
IPA chart, by the late
- Spoken IPA chart,
by Paul Meier
IPA vowel chart with audio
- History of the International Phonetic Alphabet with Additional Resources
- Cued Articulation
IPA symbols, and ASCII transcription systems
- X-Sampa / CXS, about
X-Sampa, with IPA converter.
between the IPA and North American vowel charts
(University of Manitoba).
- History of the IPA (wikipedia)
History of the IPA (answers.com).
IPA bij Rijksuniversiteit Groningen
samples recorded in 1956
The Cardinal Vowels with Daniel Jones
(full set of 18 vowels)
Cardinal vowels by John Wells, Susan Ramsaran and Peter Ladefoged.
- IPA vowel
symbols for British English in dictionaries
Université de Lausanne,
Intro to phonetics, with sound samples.
Handbook of the International Phonetic Association
Language recordings, also of
Index of sounds
doing phonetics by computer, by
Paul Boersma and
Formants in vowels in several languages
code charts, including one for
Glossary which is part of an
on-line phonology course.
- Old books
about Portuguese orthography and phonology and phonetics.
8 odd sounds from other languages
… that you could never make except you probably already have.
A live rendition of the
“8 bizarre sounds you’ve probably made without
knowing it” from TheWeek.com. By
na Andaluzia, Teaching Português in Andalusia. Lots of useful links for people
teaching or learning Portuguese, also outside Andalusia.
- Estúdio Raposa, audioblogue do Luís Gaspar.
International Phonetic Alphabet in Unicode, by John Wells, 2012.
Of course, you might want to find your own references using search engines like
Comments may be sent to me, Ruud Harmsen.