Introduction to the Interlingua-English Dictionary

By Alexander Gode / per Alexander Gode.

Traducite in interlingua per Karel Wilgenhof, revidite per Piet Cleij e Bent Andersen.

Fontes: UMI (anglese), UMI (interlingua), AFIL (Association Finlandese pro Interlingua).

A summary / un summario per Ruud Harmsen, julio/augusto 2020.


Introduction

Introduction

In the history of the International Auxiliary Language Association – and of the auxiliary language movement as a whole – the publication of the Interlingua-English Dictionary marks an important step ahead. We do not present it to the world as an inspired new departure, a cure-all, if it were generally accepted, for every ill resulting from the confusion of tongues. We merely claim to have "summarized the past" by producing for the first time a dictionary of the international language, based on a rigorously consistent and scientifically exact application of the one fundamental idea adhered to by most interlinguists of the past three quarters of a century. We share with our predecessors the view that the world need not wait for the creator of an ideal universal tongue because it is a fact that the international language exists potentially in the common elements of the speech forms of huge segments of civilized mankind. On this fact we have based the principles and rules and the devices which have governed the making of the Interlingua-English Dictionary.

In le historia del International Auxiliary Language Association – e del movimento de lingua auxiliar in general – le publication del Interlingua-English Dictionary (IED) marca un importante passo in avante. Nos non lo presenta al mundo como un nove partita inspirate, un panacea, si illo esserea generalmente acceptate, pro omne damnos que resulta del confusion de linguas. Nos solmente affirma haber “summarisate le passato” per producer pro le prime vice un dictionario del lingua international, basate super un application strictemente consistente e scientificamente exacte del unic idea fundamental a que le majoritate del interlinguistas adhereva durante le passate tres quartos de un seculo. Nos participa in le vista de nostre predecessores que il non es necessari pro le mundo attender le venita de un creator de un lingua universal ideal proque il es un facto que le lingua international potentialmente existe in le elementos commun del formas de linguage de vaste segmentos del humanitate civilisate. Super iste facto nos ha basate le principios e regulas e le methodos que ha dominate le compilation del Interlingua-English Dictionary.

Our efforts are so clearly connected with those of our predecessors that it is both impossible and superfluous to acknowledge in detail our indebtedness to them. We do not present a new work detached and distinguished from theirs but rather the common answer to our quest and theirs for a standard presentation of the international vocabulary. If we have been successful in this, the lasting significance of our work is assured. The practical interlinguist will be struck by the fact that this volume contains no proposal for a grammatical system to operate the international vocabulary nor a section which supplements the Interlingua-English Dictionary by leading into the international vocabulary from English. The demand for these and similar additional tool publications is legitimate, but it can only be fulfilled on the basis of a systematic recording of the international vocabulary. To furnish such a basis, to represent such a systematic recording, is the purpose and aim of this Dictionary. In it the international vocabulary, which numerous interlinguistic systems have used, are using, and will use in various ways and to various degrees of consistency, appears now at last in a methodical assembly ready to serve interlinguists of all schools in their various needs and likewise to form the standard and norm of future complementary and specialized publications–grammars, dictionaries, and handbooks in various languages concerned with various forms of the interlingua.

Nostre effortios es tanto clarmente connectite con illos de nostre predecessores que il es e impossibile e superflue recognoscer in detalio nostre debitos a illes. Nos non presenta un nove obra distachate e distincte del lores sed plus tosto le responsa commun a nostre recercas e le lores pro un presentation standard del vocabulario international. Si nos ha succedite in isto, le permanente significantia de nostre labor es assecurate. Le interlinguista practic notara con surprisa le facto que iste obra non contine un proponimento pro un systema grammatic pro facer funger le vocabulario international, ni un section que supplementa le Interlingua-English Dictionary per ducer ad in le vocabulario international ab anglese. Le demanda pro le publication de iste e similar additiones utilitari es legitime, sed isto pote esser exequite solmente super le base de un registration systematic del vocabulario international. Fornir un tal base e presentar un tal registration systematic es le proposito e scopo de iste Dictionario. In illo le vocabulario international, que numerose systemas interlinguistic usava, usa e usara in varie manieras e in varie grados de consistentia, nunc appare al fin in un collection methodic preste a servir interlinguistas de omne scholas in lor varie besonios e equalmente a formar le standard e norma de futur publicationes complementari e specialisate – grammaticas, dictionarios e manuales in varie linguas concernite de varie formas de interlingua.

As a summary account of the whence and wherefore of the Dictionary, the following material is organized under several heads. The first section, "Theory and Principles," discusses the objective data which have determined our approach. It is a restatement of the considerations and conclusions which have guided most interlinguists since the time of Dr. Zamenhof's original conception of Esperanto.

Como un conto summari del “de ubi” e “proque” del Dictionario le sequente materia es arrangiate sub plure testas. Le prime section “Theoria e Principios” discute le factos objective que ha determinate nostre accostamento. Illo es un re-exposition del considerationes e conclusiones que ha guidate le majoritate del interlinguistas ab le tempore del original conception per Dr. Zamenhof de Esperanto.

The second section, "Method and Techniques," constitutes a practical laboratory manual and offers a description of the procedure followed in gathering and arranging the material included in the Dictionary.

Le secunde section, “Methodo e Technicas” constitue un practic manual de travalio e offere un description del procedura sequite in colliger e arrangiar le materia inserite in le Dictionario.

The international vocabulary is as much subject to further growth as are the vocabularies of all national languages, but its future problems must not be left to depend on subjective decisions. Their solution must result from the application of a specific technique to whatever the international linguistic facts may be. Thus the methodological section is to serve simultaneously the normative functions which in similar cases under different conditions are vested in linguistic academies.

Le vocabulario international es tanto multo subjicite a crescentia ulterior quanto es le vocabulario de omne linguas national, sed le futur problemas de illo non debe esser admittite a depender de decisiones subjective. Lor solution debe resultar ex le application de un technica specific a quecunque sia le factos linguistic international. Assi le section methodologic debe simultaneemente servir le functiones normative que in casos similar sub conditiones differente es assignate a academias linguistic.

The concluding sections represent a user's guide and show the machinery of the Dictionary in operation.

Le sectiones conclusive presenta un guida pro le usator e monstra le machineria del Dictionario in operation.

THEORY AND PRINCIPLES

THEORIA E PRINCIPIOS

International Languages. – In modern times protagonists of the idea of a neutral auxiliary language have come to rely less and less on arbitrary devices. They have been restricting their endeavors more and more consciously to the arrangement and processing of words and rules of grammar which they have culled from existing natural languages. These words and rules – so the argument seems to run – need not be introduced from scratch; they are and have been in practical use. No one can doubt their qualifications to serve efficiently and well.

Linguas international. – In le tempore moderne protagonistas del idea de un neutral lingua auxiliar ha arrivate a basar lor tentativas de minus in minus super ingenios arbitrari. Illes ha restringite lor tentativas de plus in plus consciemente al arrangiamento e tractamento de parolas e regulas grammatic que illes ha prendite ab existente linguas natural. Iste parolas e regulas – assi on pare opinar – non debe introducer se ab vacuo; illos es e ha essite in uso practic. Nemo pote dubitar de lor qualificationes pro servir ben e efficacemente.

This trend no doubt has played into the hands of those who advocate the adoption of one of the major existing languages as the most promising choice for a universal auxiliary language. To a certain extent their proposals might seem to agree with the lessons of the history of interlinguistics and auxiliary languages in general. However, that history tells us also that no national language has ever been used for auxiliary purposes unless its native speakers had established themselves as a people in a position of political or cultural hegemony. A national language used as a secondary world language implies on the part of its speakers a claim to universal superiority, and no people is in a position to make such a claim and force all parties concerned to agree.

Iste tendentia esseva sin dubita favorabile a istes qui defende le adoption de un del major linguas existente como le election le plus promittente pro un lingua auxiliar universal. A un certe mesura lor propositiones pare concordar con le instructiones per le historia del interlinguistica e linguas auxiliar in general. Totevia, iste historia dice a nos etiam que nulle lingua national ha unquam essite in uso pro objectivos auxiliar si non illes qui lo parlava se habeva establite como un populo in un position de hegemonia politic o cultural. Un lingua national que servi como un secundari lingua mundial implica del parte de su parlatores le pretention de superioritate universal, e nulle populo occupa un position pro tener un tal pretention e fortiar omne partitos concernite a consentir a isto.

Secondary or auxiliary languages are a very old and very common phenomenon. Late Greek served as one. As such it was particularly important since the New Testament was written and propagated in it. The case of medieval Latin is very similar and so, albeit in different fields and on different levels, are the examples of contemporary Pidgin English, of Swahili or Kiswahili in East Africa, of Hindustani, Mandarin Chinese, and of literally dozens of other so-called lingua francas. None of these, however, was a man-made auxiliary language, and no man-made auxiliary language has ever equaled the least of them in practical everyday importance.

Linguas auxiliar o secundari es un phenomeno multo vetule e multo commun. Tarde greco functionava como un tal e esseva specialmente importante proque le Nove Testamento esseva scribite e propagate in illo. Le caso de latino medieval es multo similar e etiam similar, ben que in campos e nivellos differente, es le exemplos del contemporanee Pidgin English, de swahili in Africa Oriental, de hindustani, chinese mandarin, e etiam de vermente dozenas de si nominate linguas franc. Totevia, nulle de istos esseva un lingua artificial fabricate, e nulle fabricate lingua artificial ha unquam equalate le minime de illos in le practic interesse de omne dies.

Extranational languages have never attained their range as the result of man's desire to understand his neighbors across the border and to avoid or overcome friction, war, and hatred, which are often regarded as unavoidable results of our numerous language borders. Actually languages of more than nationally restricted use have always been established in their role as secondary or auxiliary languages in foreign parts by potent needs either of a purely utilitarian or of a generally cultural kind.

Linguas non-national ha nunquam attingite lor scopo como le resultato del desiro del homine a comprender su vicinos trans le frontiera e a evitar frictiones, guerra e odio, le quales es frequentemente reguardate como inevitabile resultatos de nostre numerose frontieras linguistic. De facto linguas in uso plus que nationalmente restringite semper esseva establite in lor rolo como linguas secundari o auxiliar in regiones estranier per le fortia de necessitates sia purmente utilitari sia generalmente cultural.

In one way or another these languages were connected or actually identified with an"expansive movement" which promoted them as in turn they served and promoted it. Medieval Latin, to mention but one example, owed its wide range to the missionary "dynamism" of the Church, while the Church, in turn, could not have accomplished its task without the universality of its language.

De un o altere maniera ille linguas esseva connectite o mesmo identificate con un “movimento expansive” que los promoveva, como reciprocamente illos lo serviva e promoveva. Latino medieval, pro mentionar un singule exemplo, debeva su large expansion al “dynamismo” missionari del Ecclesia, durante que le Ecclesia, reciprocamente, non haberea essite capace a exercer su function sin le universalitate de su lingua.

These data may justify the generalization that no secondary auxiliary language of major or minor scope has ever been accepted and used if in back of it there was not a specific force which promoted it because it needed it as a practical tool.

Iste factos pote justificar le generalisation que nulle lingua auxiliar secundari de extension major o minor ha unquam essite acceptate e usate si in fundo de illo il non habeva un fortia specific que lo propagava como un necessari utensile de practica.

Applied to the problem of a modern auxiliary world language, this means that either the modern world can claim to have initiated an expansive movement of the kind alluded to in which case the modern world must already have a language of its own that cannot and need not be superseded by a product of man's making – or there is no such movement – in which case all our efforts to establish a universal auxiliary language are a clear waste of time and energy because none can exist.

Con respecto al problema de un moderne lingua auxiliar mundial isto significa que o le mundo moderne pote pretender que illo initiava un movimento expansive del sorta alludite – in qual caso le mundo moderne debe jam haber su proprie lingua que non pote e non debe esser supplantate per un producto artificial – o il non ha un tal movimento – in qual caso omne nostre effortios pro establir un lingua auxiliar universal es solmente perdita de tempore e energia proque un tal lingua non pote exister.

The first of these alternatives is right. The modern world is pervaded in all its parts and phases by a powerful influence which has reduced the vastness of the globe to a matter of hours and has diffused things and ideas and problems to every corner of every continent. If one simple label is wanted to designate the force responsible for all the good and all the evil that distinguishes our contemporary world from that of centuries past, we may call it the power of science and technology. But if we go on to ask, has not this world-wide sweep of science and technology carried with it to all corners of the world a language of its own, somewhat in the manner of the medieval Church of Rome which took its Latin language with it wherever it brought its expansive influence to bear, the answer is a peculiarly hesitant one. Yes, in a way there is such a language. We often speak of the language of science and technology. But if this is to lead to the conclusion that that language should then be regarded as the one and only possible auxiliary world language of modern times, we suddenly realize that the language of science and technology is no language in the full sense of the word but at best a vast body of international terms and phrases which appear in our various languages under a corresponding number of slightly varying forms.

Le prime de iste alternativas es correcte. Le mundo moderne es penetrate in omne su regiones e stadios per un potente influentia que ha reducite le vastitate del globo terrestre a un mesura de horas e ha diffundite cosas e ideas e problemas verso omne angulos de omne continentes. Si on ha necessitate de un singule characteristica pro designar le fortia responsabile pro omne le bon e omne le mal que distingue nostre hodierne mundo de illo de seculos passate, nos pote appellar lo le potentia del scientia e del technologia. Sed si nos continua interrogar: non ha portate iste expansion mundial del scientia e del technologia con se a omne angulos del mundo su proprie lingua, alique in le maniera del medieval Ecclesia de Roma que portava con se su lingua latin ubicunque illo exerceva su influentia expansive, le responsa es peculiarmente hesitante. In effecto in un certe senso il ha un tal linguage. Nos pote parlar del lingua del scientia e technologia. Sed si isto deberea implicar le conclusion que ille lingua sia reguardate como le sol possibile lingua auxiliar del mundo in le tempore moderne, nos subito deveni conscie del facto que le lingua del scientia e technologia non es un lingua in le ver senso del parola sed in le melior del casos un vaste massa de terminos e phrases international, le quales appare in nostre varie linguas in un correspondente numero de formas con legier differentias.

Unfortunately we must not analyze further the fascinating suggestion that it is perhaps quite natural that science and technology should be incapable of going beyond the world-wide diffusion of a vast number of specifically technical terms and of evolving from them a full-fledged language, because this inability may very well be correlated with the fact that the world of science and technology is one of discrete ideas which do not fall into a complete and coherent pattern, or in other words, that the "language" of science and technology is not really a language because the thought of science and technology is not really a philosophy.

Infortunatemente, nos non pote plus analysar le suggestion fascinante que forsan il es toto natural que le scientia e le technologia esserea incapace a superar le diffusion mundial de un amplissime numero de terminos specificamente technic e a disveloppar ex istos un complete lingua, proque iste incapacitate probabilemente ha un correlation con le facto que le mundo del scientia e del technologia es un sphera de notiones discrete que non se compacta in un structura complete e coherente, o pro dicer alteremente, que le “lingua” del scientia e technologia non realmente es un lingua proque le pensar del scientia e technologia non realmente es un philosophia.

In interlinguistic terms all this means that even though the "language" of science and technology is not a full-fledged language, even though it can supply us only with a vast number of words and phrases of international validity in various peculiarly national but easily recognizable forms, it does represent a nucleus of a complete language. It does represent fragments of the only international language we have. And the task of the practical interlinguist turns out to be the selection and arrangement of international words and subsequently their expansion into a fully developed language – a language, of course, which, though it may have its base and its raison d'être in the vast domain of technological data, will draw on and cover the arts and all other human endeavors down to the most humble concerns of our daily lives.

In senso interlinguistic omne isto significa que nonobstante que le “lingua” del scientia e technologia non es un complete lingua, nonobstante que illo pote fornir a nos solmente un amplissime numero de parolas e phrases con validitate international in varie formas specificamente national sed facilemente recognoscibile, illo certo presenta un nucleo de un lingua complete. Illo certo presenta fragmentos del sol lingua international que nos possede. E il se monstra que le function del interlinguista practic es le selection e le arrangiamento de parolas international e postea lor expansion in un lingua toto disveloppate – un lingua, naturalmente, le qual mesmo si illo ha su fundo e ‘raison d’être’ in le vaste dominio de terminos technologic, va avantiar e extender se al artes e a omne altere occupationes human usque al cosas le plus humile de nostre vita quotidian.

International Words. – In the widest sense, an international word is a word which occurs in more than one national language. The German words Haus and Automobil, for example, are identical with the English words house and automobile despite slight differences in spelling and pronunciation. Their meanings are of course essential parts of them. If they were semantically distinct, as are English also and German also for example, they could not be viewed as identical words.

Parolas international. – In le plus large senso un parola international es un parola que se trova in plus de un singule lingua national. Le parolas german Haus e Automobil, per exemplo, es identic con le parolas anglese house e automobile malgrado parve differentias in orthographia e pronunciation. Lor significationes es naturalmente partes essential de illos. Si illos esseva distincte in senso semantic, como per exemplo anglese also e german also, illos non poterea esser reguardate como parolas identic.

There are two types of international words. German and English Haus and house represent a type which owes its international range to the common descent of two or more languages; words of this type are international by cognateship in the restricted sense of the term. On the other hand, the internationalism of German and English Automobil and automobile is due to the transition of words from one language to another; words of this type, though sometimes loosely called cognates, should be distinguished as international by loan and diffusion.

Il ha duo typos de parolas international. German Haus e anglese house representa un typo que debe su extension international al descendentia commun de duo o plure linguas; parolas de iste typo es international per parentato in le senso restricte del termino. Al altere latere, le internationalismo de german Automobil e anglese automobile es debite al transition de vocabulos de un lingua a un altere; parolas de iste typo, ben que a vices con inexactitude nominate cognatos, debe esser distinguite como international per adoption e diffusion.

In its most comprehensive sense, the term "international word" would take in a huge number of words which occur in but a very few languages of minor significance. International words differ strikingly in their range. From a practical point of view only those international words need be considered which have a fairly wide range of occurrence throughout the regions of the world inhabited by peoples who participate in international intercourse and are consequently apt to take an interest in its simplification.

In le senso le plus comprehensive le termino “parola international” comprehenderea un enorme numero de parolas que se trova solmente in pauchissime linguas de significantia minor. Parolas international differe impressionantemente in lor extension. Ab un puncto de vista practic il es necessari considerar solmente ille parolas international que ha un assatis large extension in le regiones del mundo habitate de populos que participa in le communication international e que es per consequente apte pro esser interessate in le simplification de illo.

If international words differ as to their range, they may likewise be grouped as to their language of origin or "center of radiation." There are important and unimportant centers of radiation, and words of wide international range spring from either.

Si parolas international differe in le mesura de lor extension, illos pote etiam esser gruppate con respecto a lor lingua de origine o “centro de radiation”. Il ha centros de radiation importante e inimportante e parolas con large extension international proveni de ambes.

The word igloo for instance has a very respectable range. It occurs in Eskimo, English, French, Russian, and in many other languages. But Eskimo, from which the word stems, is not therefore a significant center of radiation.

Le parola igloo, per exemplo, ha un extension multo respectabile. Illo se trova in eskimo, anglese, francese, russo, e in multe altere linguas. Sed eskimo, de que le parola proveniva, non es pro isto un centro de radiation significante.

Such minor "centers of radiation" can be disregarded without a resulting loss of important items in the international vocabulary provided it be ascertained that the possible contributions of every disregarded center come into consideration elsewhere. Neglecting the Eskimo center of radiation will not imply the loss of the international word igloo, if English, Russian, French, or any of the other languages which know the word, are kept under observation.

Tal minor “centros de radiation” pote esser negligite sin un resultante perdita de entratas importante in le vocabulario international sub le condition que es assecurate que le contributiones possibile de cata abandonate centro essera considerate alterubi. Abandonamento del centro de radiation eskimo non implicara le perdita del international igloo, si anglese, russo, francese o qualcunque altere lingua que cognosce le parola, essera tenite in observation.

The restriction of the number of languages examined with regard to their stock of international words does not imply the exclusion of international words of all sorts of remote origins from the resulting list.

Le restriction del numero del linguas examinate con respecto a lor stock de parolas international non implica le exclusion de parolas international de omne sortas de origines remote del registro resultante.

For practical reasons the sphere in which "international words" are to be collected must be restricted, but the purpose of getting together the most generally international vocabulary possible can best be served if the restricted sphere fulfills two requirements: first, it must be a powerful center of radiation of international words, one that has contributed largely to the stock of international words throughout the rest of the world; secondly, it must have a high degree of receptivity with regard to the material radiating from other languages.

Pro rationes practic le sphera in que “parolas international” sia colligite, debe esser restringite, sed le proposito de assemblar le vocabulario le plus possibile generalmente international, pote esser le melio servite si le sphera restricte satisface duo requirimentos: primo, illo debe esser un potente centro de radiation de parolas international, un centro que ha amplemente contribuite al stock de parolas international in omne partes del mundo; secundo, illo debe haber un alte grado de receptivitate con respecto al material que es radiate ab altere linguas.

As for the second of these requirements, English represents a well-nigh ideal fulfillment of it. Hardly another language can compete with English in its "receptive power." Indeed, a list of words of wide international range outside the orbit of English would include few important groups with the possible exception of a fairly substantial vocabulary "radiated" from the Islamic world to Spain, Eastern Europe, and parts of Asia but not to the English-speaking world.

Quanto al secunde de iste requirimentos, le anglese presenta un responsa quasi ideal a illo. A pena un altere lingua pote competer con le anglese in su “potentia receptive”. In effecto, un lista de parolas con large extension international extra le sphera del anglese includerea pauc gruppos importante con le possibile exception de un vocabulario relativemente substantial “radiate” ab le mundo islamic a Espania, Europa Oriental, e partes de Asia sed non al mundo anglophone.

The first requirement, concerned with the power of radiation of international words, is a more complex matter. There is no one language that stands as far above all others in regard to the bulk of its contributions to the international vocabulary as does English in regard to its ability to assimilate foreign words.

Le prime requirimento, que concerne le potentia de radiation de parolas international, es un materia plus complicate. Il non ha un lingua que supera omne alteres con respecto al grosso de su contributiones al vocabulario international como le anglese face con respecto a su capabilitate de assimilar parolas foranee.

The most important group of international words is doubtless the body of technical terms in science and technology. In the large majority of cases the international technical terminology is built up of Latin and Greek or Greco-Latin elements. It is not on the whole the contribution of any one language, not even of Greek and Latin taken together, for it includes a considerable number of terms which, though consisting of classical elements, were completely unknown to the native speakers of both the classical languages. Socrates spoke Greek all through his life but he never used the telephone and did not know that the word for it comes from his mother tongue.

Le gruppo le plus importante de parolas international es sin dubita le corpore de terminos technic in le scientia e le technologia. In le grande majoritate de casos le terminologia technic international es construite de elementos latin e grec o grecolatin. Illo non es, toto considerate, le contribution de un singule lingua, non mesmo greco e latino combinate, nam illo contine un numero considerabile de terminos que, ben que illos consiste de elementos classic, esseva completemente incognite al parlatores native de ambe linguas classic. Socrates parlava greco durante tote su vita, sed ille nunquam usava le telephono e non sapeva que le parola pro illo proveni de su lingua materne.

Words of this type may be grouped under the head of their common origin in a kind of theoretical Neo-Latin which is not spoken anywhere but appears unfolded in the several contemporary Romance languages. Taken as a group and viewed as joint executors of the Latin heritage and hence as representing most fully the Neo-Latin source of most of the international technical vocabulary, the Romance languages are the most potent center of radiation of international words.

Parolas de iste typo pote gruppar se sub le testa de lor origine commun in un specie de neolatino theoretic, que non es parlate alicubi sed appare disvelate in le varie linguas romance contemporanee. Prendite como un gruppo e reguardate como associate executantes del hereditage latin e consequentemente como le plus ample representation del fonte neolatin del major parte del technic vocabulario international, le linguas romance es le plus potente centro de radiation de parolas international.

Variants and Their Prototypes. – The determination of what words are to be regarded as part of the international vocabulary is one thing; the determination of the forms under which they are to be listed is another. The language of origin of a given international word cannot help solve this problem. For instance, the German word Statistik and the English word penicillin (they are German and English in origin) would, if spelled Statistik and penicillin as items in a list of words of wide international range, still be German and English and not "international." Their forms must be "internationalized," that is, be normalized or standardized on the basis of the variants under which they occur in the national languages. The resulting prototypes are neither English nor German, not Latin or Greek, neither this language nor that, but in them the variants occurring in this language as well as in that can immediately be recognized. Neither German Statistik nor of course English statistics or French statistique can qualify as an international form. In the international vocabulary the word must be represented by a form of which Statistik and statistics as well as statistique are variants determined by idiosyncratic peculiarities characteristic of German, English, and French respectively.

Variantes e lor prototypos. – Le determination de qual vocabulos sia reguardate como un parte del vocabulario international es un cosa per se; le determination del formas in que illos sia registrate es un altere. Le lingua de origine de un date parola international non pote adjutar in le solution de iste problema. Per exemplo, si le parola german Statistik e le parola anglese penicillin (illos es german e anglese de origine) esseva scribite Statistik e penicillin como entratas in un lista de vocabulos de large extension international, illos ancora esserea german e anglese e non “international”. Lor formas debe “internationalisar” se, isto es, normalisar o standardisar se super le base de variantes in le quales illos se trova in le linguas national. Le prototypos resultante es ni anglese ni german, ni latin ni grec, ni iste lingua ni ille, sed in illos le variantes que se trova in iste o ille lingua pote esser immediatemente recognoscite. Ni german Statistik ni naturalmente anglese statistics o francese statistique pote qualificar se como un forma international. In le vocabulario international le parola debe representar se per un forma de que Statistik e statistics tanto ben como statistique es variantes determinate per peculiaritates idiosyncratic que es characteristic in respectivemente germano, anglese e francese.

The process of viewing together the variant forms of international words in order to arrive at normalized, or standardized, prototypes cannot comply with a verifiable methodology applicable to ever new cases, unless the variants themselves, and hence the languages to which they belong, have a common basis in which the principles of normalization or standardization may be rooted.

Le processo de reguardar insimul le variante formas de parolas international a fin de arrivar a prototypos normalisate o standardisate, non pote satisfacer a un verificabile methodologia que es applicabile a omne nove casos, si non le variantes ipse, e, per consequente, le linguas al quales illos pertine, ha un base commun in le qual le principios de normalisation o standardisation pote haber lor radices.

The Romance languages do have such a common basis in Latin. They represent furthermore the most potent center of radiation of international words and are thus on two important counts a research sphere in which the garnering of international words appears to be most promising.

Le linguas romance ha certo un tal base commun in latino. Illos representa in ultra le plus potente centro de radiation de parolas international e assi illos es in duo respectos importante un sphera de recerca in que le accumulation de parolas international pare esser le plus promittente.

Source or Control Languages. – English answers most fully the requirement of receptive power in regard to international words of foreign origin. The Romance languages comply best with the requirement of productive radiation of international words. The best restricted sphere of languages in which to carry out a systematic collection of international words is consequently a combination of English and the Romance languages. We refer to these languages variously as source or control languages.

Linguas fonte o de controlo. – Le anglese responde le plus al requirimento de potentia receptive con respecto a parolas international de origine foranee. Le linguas romance optimo satisface al requirimento de radiation productive de parolas international. Le melior sphera restricte de linguas in que on debe exercer un collection systematic de parolas international es per consequente un combination de anglese e le linguas romance. Nos refere a iste linguas variemente como linguas fonte o linguas de controlo.

The inclusion of English does not interfere with the desideratum that the languages to be scrutinized for the compilation of the international vocabulary should be possessed of a common basis. English does share the basis which holds the Romance languages together. Its vocabulary is so strongly romanic that in this respect – whatever the situation may be in other respects – it is a Romance language.

Le inclusion del anglese non conflige con le desideratum que le linguas que sia scrutinate pro le compilation del vocabulario international debe posseder un base commun. In effecto le base que tene conjuncte le linguas romance es etiam le base del anglese, del qual le vocabulario es tanto fortemente romance que in iste respecto – qualcunque sia le situation in altere respectos – illo vermente es un lingua romance.

The Anglo-Romance group of languages can boast an aggregate of close to half a billion speakers. This quarter of mankind includes no considerable ethnic group uninvolved or uninterested in international concerns. Nor, to be sure, does it include all the populations of the globe that are involved and interested in international concerns but certainly most of them.

Le gruppo anglo-romance de linguas pote vangloriar se de un total de quasi un medie milliardo de parlatores. Iste quarto del humanitate include nulle considerabile gruppo ethnic que non es involvite e interessate in cosas international. Ni, in veritate, illo include omne populationes del terra que es involvite e interessate in cosas international sed certo le major parte de illos.

A few examples may serve to show that the Anglo-Romance group of languages does constitute a sphere of source languages in which international words of the most varied origins can be gathered. The Hebrew word for "hell," Gē Hinnōm, is widely international, but to get it into the international vocabulary, Hebrew need not be investigated for the word appears in English as Gehenna, in Spanish as gehena, in Italian as geenna. The Arabic word which appears in English as alcove can likewise be garnered in the restricted sphere, for it appears in Italian and Portuguese as alcova, in Spanish as alcoba, and in French as alcove. An example of an international word of Russian origin is that appearing in English as mammoth, in French as mammouth, in Spanish as mamat, and in Italian as mammut. A German example is English feldspar, French feldspath, Italian feldispato, Spanish feldespato.

Alicun exemplos pote esser utile pro monstrar que le gruppo anglo-romance de linguas certo constitue un sphera de linguas fonte in le qual parolas international del plus variate origines pote esser colligite. Le parola hebree pro ‘inferno’, Ge Hinnom, es largemente international, sed pro mitter lo in le vocabulario international, il non es necessari investigar le lingua hebree, proque le parola appare in anglese como Gehenna, in francese como géhenne, in espaniol como gehena, in italiano como geenna. Le parola arabic que appare in anglese como alcove pote equalmente esser retrovate in le sphera restricte, nam illo appare in italiano e portugese como alcova, in espaniol como alcoba, e in francese como alcove. Un exemplo de un parola international de origine russe es illo que appare in anglese como mammoth, in francese como mammouth, in espaniol como mamut, e in italiano como mammut. Un exemplo german es anglese feldspar, francese feldspath, italian feldispato, espaniol feldespato.

The reasoning in favor of a restricted sphere of assemblage of international words does not preclude the possibility of shifting its boundaries in the interest of a richer haul. In lieu of one or two of the languages of the Anglo-Romance group one or two other languages of at least equal significance in the international field may be included, provided, of course, that the items examined are still held together by a common basis, which means, that their center of gravity remains in the Anglo-Romance sphere. In the compilation of this Dictionary the sphere of research has been permitted to shift only so as to include German or Russian or both. The decision not to use the same procedure for other languages was reached after ample tests had demonstrated that the consequent complication of our methodology would not have affected the results in any appreciable way.

Le rationamento in favor de un sphera restricte pro colliger le parolas international non preclude le possibilitate de displaciar su frontieras in le interesse de un prisa plus ric. In loco de un o duo linguas del gruppo anglo-romance un o duo altere linguas de significantia al minus equal in le campo international pote esser includite, sub le condition, naturalmente, que le cosas examinate es ancora tenite insimul per un base commun, lo que significa que lor centro de gravitate remane in le sphera anglo-romance. In le compilation de iste Dictionario esseva admittite al campo de recerca extender se a germano, o russo, o a ambes. Al decision de non usar le mesme procedura pro altere linguas esseva attingite post que ample tests habeva demonstrate que le complication consequente de nostre methodologia non haberea afficite le resultatos in grado perceptibile.

Summary. – Of all languages that ever attained more than national usefulness it can be said that they were carried beyond their original confines by an expansive cultural or utilitarian dynamism. They functioned as indispensable cultural or utilitarian tools. Modern internationalism is largely conditioned by science and technology in the most comprehensive sense. The language of science and technology is the modern international language or interlingua. It is not, strictly speaking, a complete language but is rather a very comprehensive body of international terms which constitute the nucleus of an interlingua. The international vocabulary has absorbed materials of the most varied origins but its center of gravity lies in the sphere of the Greco-Latin tradition. It can be collected within the confines of a homogeneous group of source or control languages which not only represent the Greco-Latin tradition in our time but have likewise absorbed all significant international words radiated from other centers. This group is the Anglo-Romance group of languages with German and Russian as potential contributors.

Summario. – De omne linguas que unquam obteneva plus que utilitate national on pote dicer que illos esseva portate trans lor confinios original per un expansive dynamismo cultural e utilitari. Illos fungeva como indispensabile utensiles cultural e utilitari. Le moderne internationalitate es largemente conditionate per le scientia e le technologia in le senso le plus comprehensive. Le lingua del scientia e del technologia es le moderne lingua international o interlingua. Illo non es, in senso stricte, un lingua complete sed es plus tosto un corpore multo comprehensive de terminos international que constitue le nucleo de un interlingua. Le lingua international ha absorbite material del plus variate origines sed su centro de gravitate es in le sphera del tradition grecolatin. Illo pote esser colligite intra le confinios de un gruppo homogenee de linguas fonte o linguas de controlo que non solmente representa le tradition grecolatin in nostre tempore sed que equalmente absorbeva omne significante parolas international radiate de altere centros. Iste gruppo es le gruppo anglo-romance de linguas con le germano e le russo como contribuentes potential.

METHOD AND TECHNIQUES

METHODO E TECHNICAS

Eligibility of International Words. – Words are eligible in the international vocabulary if they have currency throughout the Anglo-Romance sphere of languages. The language units to be examined individually are Italian, French, English, and Spanish and Portuguese combined. The combination of the two Iberian languages is indicated not because their separate importance could be doubted but because their significance in the pattern of the Romance languages is similar. The absence of a word from the vocabulary of one of the units listed is often a coincidence which cannot suffice to bar it from the international vocabulary. German or Russian may take the place of any of the Anglo-Romance source units. In sum, a preliminary formulation of the criterion of internationality runs as follows: A word is to be accepted as international when its presence is attested – in corresponding forms and with corresponding meanings – in at least three of the language units, Italian, Spanish and/or Portuguese, French and English, with German and Russian as possible substitutes.

Eligibilitate de parolas international. – Parolas es eligibile in le vocabulario international si illos es currente in tote le sphera anglo-romance de linguas. Le linguas que sia individualmente scrutinate es italiano, francese, anglese e, combinate, espaniol e portugese. Le combination del duo linguas iberic es indicate non proque lor importantia separate esserea dubitabile sed proque lor significantia in le assemblea del linguas romance es similar. Le absentia de un parola in le vocabulario de un del linguas mentionate es multe vices un coincidentia que non pote justificar le retention de illo del vocabulario international. Germano o russo pote reimplaciar qualcunque del fontes anglo-romance. In summa, le criterio de internationalitate pote preliminarmente esser formulate como seque: Un parola debe esser acceptate como international quando su presentia es certificate – in formas e significationes correspondente – in al minus tres del linguas italian, espaniol e/o portugese, francese e anglese con germano e russo como possibile substitutos.

The practical application of this rule encounters a number of specific problems.

Le application practic se confronta con alicun problemas specific.

1. – The decision as to whether a word exists in a given language is not always a clear and simple matter. It is neither possible to limit oneself to the listings found in a set of chosen dictionaries nor to consider every obscure entry in the most exhaustive compilations. Technical terms should be looked for in technical dictionaries while everyday expressions should be traced in average dictionaries of the everyday language. Furthermore, the investigation cannot in all instances be limited to the current modern vocabulary. For instance, while the modern French word tuer "to kill" shows no relationship to the Italian word uccidere of the same meaning, there are traces in French of the older occire, and even in Spanish, whose normal word for "to kill" is matar, an old verb corresponding with Italian uccidere and French occire has survived at least in the participial form occiso. In this case – and similarly in similar ones – one may reason that hidden behind, and represented by, tuer and matar there are older forms corresponding with Italian uccidere, so that the requirements of internationality are fulfilled in regard to a word for "to kill" which corresponds directly to Latin occidere.

1. – Le determination si o non un parola existe in un del linguas non es semper clar e facile. Il non es ni possibile restringer se al mentiones in alicun seligite dictionarios ni considerar omne obscur entrata in fontes le plus comprehensive. Terminos technic sia cercate in dictionarios technic, durante que expressiones quotidian sia traciate in dictionarios commun que representa le lingua de omne dies. In plus, le investigationes non pote limitar se in omne casos al moderne vocabulario currente. Per exemplo, durante que le actual parola francese tuer (occider) non es parentate al parola italian uccidere con le mesme signification, il ha vestigios in francese del ancian occire, e mesmo in espaniol, cuje parola normal pro ‘occider’ es matar, un ancian verbo correspondente con italian uccidere e francese occire ha supervivite al minus in le forma participial occiso. In iste caso como etiam in casos similar on pote argumentar que celate detra, e representate per tuer e matar, il ha formas plus vetule que corresponde con italian uccidere, de maniera que le requirimentos de internationalitate es plenmente complite con respecto a un parola pro anglese “to kill” que directemente corresponde al latin occidere.

Carried to its extreme conclusions this procedure justifies the inclusion in the international vocabulary of words corresponding with all Latin terms provided their concepts appear in one form or another in the modern languages. At first glance so broad an interpretation of the rule of modern internationality of words might seem arbitrary. Upon closer examination, however, one is struck by the fact that the languages of the Western World are all in the habit of having recourse to classical and predominantly Latin word material whenever new expressions are to be coined, as well in cases where new ideas, facts, and things are to be named as also when a synonym for a traditionally available term is needed.

Applicate a su conclusiones extreme iste procedura justifica le adoption in le vocabulario international de parolas que corresponde con omne terminos latin sub le condition que lor conceptos existe in un o altere forma in le linguas moderne. A prime vista un interpretation tanto large del regula de internationalitate moderne de parolas pote parer arbitrari. Tamen, post un examination plus stricte, le facto se intrude que tote le linguas del mundo occidental ha le habitude de recurrer al materia lexical classic e ante toto latin quandocunque nove terminos debe esser formulate, tanto in casos ubi novelle ideas, factos o objectos debe nominar se, como etiam si il ha necessitate de un synonymo pro un termino traditional jam disponibile.

2. – The principle of correspondence of word forms in the various contributing languages needs to be allowed a certain latitude. The English words automobile and fidelity correspond completely with French automobile and fidélité or Spanish automovil and fidelidad. The second is everywhere a direct descendent from Latin fidelitas, fidelitat- and consists everywhere of an adjective made into a noun by the addition of one and the same suffix in various etymologically identical forms. The first is everywhere a modern compound consisting again in all instances of etymologically identical elements. However, in an example like Italian amaritudine, it will be found that neither its Spanish nor its French equivalents are in full etymological correspondence. French amertume and Spanish amargor as also the Italian synonyms amarore and amarezza have substituted deviating suffixes for the original Latin one. Such suffix substitutions, which are not occasioned by expressive needs, must not be allowed to deny a particular word its full international standing, for with them the deviation in form does not imply a deviation in meaning.

2. – Al principio de correspondentia de formas de parolas in le varie linguas contribuente on debe admitter qualque latitude. Le parolas anglese automobile e fidelity corresponde completemente con francese automobile e fidelité o espaniol automóvil e fidelidad. Le secunde es in omne linguas un descendente directe de latin fidelitas, fidelitat- e consiste ubique de un adjectivo que deveniva un substantivo per le adjunction de un mesme suffixo in varie formas etymologicamente identic. Le prime es in omne linguas un composition moderne que etiam consiste in omne casos de elementos etymologicamente identic. Tamen, in un exemplo como italian amaritudine on trova que ni le equivalente espaniol ni le francese monstra un complete correspondentia etymologic. Francese amertume e espaniol amargor como etiam le synonymos italian amarore e amarezza ha substituite altere elementos pro le original suffixo latin. Tal substitutiones de suffixos, que non esseva causate per necessitates expressive, non debe dar un motivo pro denegar a un parola specific le plen stato international, proque pro tales le deviation formal non implica un deviation de signification.

Numerous examples of this point are supplied by English adjectives which often differ from the corresponding words in other languages by an excrement meaningless suffix. The suffix -al in fanatical is meaningless; it does not cause the word to differ in any sense from its synonym fanatic and justifies no discrimination between it and French fanatique, Italian fanatico, etc. The same holds true for the English type voracious which has a "superfluous," that is, a distinctively English and meaningless suffix -ious. The corresponding French word is vorace, Spanish voraz, etc.

Numerose exemplos de iste genere es fornite per adjectivos anglese que in plure casos differe de parolas correspondente in altere linguas per un suffixo excrescente sin signification. Le suffixo -al in anglese fanatical non ha un signification; illo non face le parola differer in ulle senso del synonymo fanatic e non admitte un discrimination inter illo e francese fanatique, italian fanatico, etc. Le mesmo vale pro le typo anglese voracious que contine un suffixo “superflue”, i.e. specificamente anglese e sin signification, -ious. Le parola correspondente francese es vorace, espaniol voraz, etc.

3. – There are numerous words which, paradoxically, do not occur in a particular language but are potentially present in it. In English, for instance, the derivational types of versatile-versatility, visible-visibility, etc. are so normal that the exceptional occurrence of an isolated proximity without a corresponding adjective strikes the student as a peculiarly English "accident." There ought to be an adjective *proxim or possibly *proximous. The frequency and clear-cut character of the English affix -ity permits the assertion that behind the noun proximity there exists – potentially if not in fact – an adjective which can join the actually existing Italian prossimo and thus contribute to the international standing of the simple adjective behind its derived noun. This same reasoning could not apply if the adjective in back of proximity did not exist anywhere. On the other hand it does apply in cases where the situation is reversed, that is, where the simple word is fully international while it is the derivative which is merely "potentially" available.

3. – Il ha numerose parolas que, paradoxemente, non se trova in un lingua particular, sed que es potentialmente presente in illo. In anglese, per exemplo, le typos derivational de versatile-versatility, visible-visibility, etc. es tanto normal que le caso exceptional de un sol proximity, sin un adjectivo correspondente, pare esser un “accidente” peculiarmente anglese. Il deberea haber un adjectivo *proxim o forsan *proximous. Le frequentia e le nettemente definite character del suffixo anglese -ity permitte le assertion que con le substantivo proximity il existe – potential- si non factualmente – un adjectivo que es parallel al de facto existente parola italian prossimo e que assi contribue al internationalitate del simple adjectivo detra le substantivo derivate. Le mesme rationamento non esserea valide in le caso que le adjectivo al fundo de proximity non existeva in ulle lingua. Al altere latere illo es applicabile in casos de situationes reverse, ie. si le parola simple es toto international durante que le parola derivate es solo “potentialmente” disponibile.

The affixes which, when occurring in formations of limited range, carry them nevertheless into the international vocabulary, must be both frequent and clear. All those found to qualify under this head are represented by special entries in the body of the Dictionary. A complete list appears below on pp. xlvi f.

Le affixos que malgrado lor existentia in formationes de sphera limitate, se introduce in le vocabulario international, debe esser e frequente e inambigue. Omne istos que pote esser ponite in iste categoria, es representate per entratas special in le corpore del Dictionario. Un lista complete se trova infra in le section “Le vocabulario international”.

What has been said about affix formations of limited range applies likewise to compounds. The Italian word for "match, lucifer" is fiammifero. It is a compound of elements which are completely international and quite unambiguous. The word as such occurs in but one language, but the representation of its elements in all the contributing languages justifies the claim that the word is potentially international. In a considerable number of cases where ideas of full international range happen to be represented by numerous and etymologically quite unrelated terms, adequate renderings in the international vocabulary can be found by examining all the monolingual renderings in regard to their potential representation in the source languages as a whole.

Lo que esseva dicite super formationes con affixos de sphera limitate es valide etiam pro compositiones. Le parola italian pro le anglese ‘match, lucifer’ es fiammifero. Isto es un composition de elementos que es completemente international e toto inambigue. Le parola in iste forma se trova solmente in un singule lingua, sed le representation de su elementos in omne linguas contribuente justifica le pretention que le parola es potentialmente international. In un considerabile numero de casos in que ideas de plen internationalitate se monstra esser representate per numerose terminos etymologicamente toto sin interrelation, on pote trovar adequate translationes in le vocabulario international per examinar omne translationes monolingual con respecto a lor representationes potential in le linguas fonte in toto.

Form of International Words. – The forms under which the international words are listed must be neither Italian nor French, Spanish, Portuguese, English, German, or Russian; they must be international. This implies that everything is to be eliminated from them that is a characteristic feature of but one particular language. If the Spanish word for "earth" is tierra, the international form of it must not contain the diphthong -ie- which is a typically Spanish development. The international form corresponding to French aimer must not end in -er which is a typically French development. Or again, if the word voracious is qualified to enter the international vocabulary, it cannot appear there with the final syllable -ious because that is a peculiarly English excrescence.

Form of International Words. – Le formas in que le parolas international es registrate debe esser ni italian, ni francese, espaniol, portugese, anglese, german o russe; illos debe esser international. Isto implica que toto sia eliminate de illos que es un tracto characteristic de un singule lingua. Si le parola espaniol pro ‘earth’ es tierra, le forma international de isto non debe continer le diphthongo -ie- que es un specific disveloppamento espaniol. Le forma international que corresponde a francese aimer non debe terminar se in -er que es un specific disveloppamento francese. Ancora, si le parola voracious es admittite a entrar in le vocabulario international, illo non pote apparer ibi con le syllaba final -ious proque isto es un peculiar excrescentia anglese.

On the other hand, the international form of a word must be such that every idiosyncratic feature of its representation in one particular language must be explicable as a monolingual transformation of it. It must be the prototype of which all contributing forms are specialized variations. For example, the prototype of French terre, Spanish tierra, Portuguese and Italian terra is terra. The French final -e and the Spanish diphthong are specifically French and Spanish developments from the original neutral final -a and the original neutral monophthong -e- respectively. The resulting international form terra may look like the Italian, Portuguese, and Latin forms, but it is "international" and not Italian, not Portuguese, and not Latin. In a great many instances the prototype and hence the international form of a word does coincide with its etymological origin, that is, in the case of words derived from Latin, the Latin ancestor form. But this is not necessarily so. If the diphthong of tierra were not a Spanish peculiarity but occurred in Italian and French as well, the prototype and hence the international form would not be terra but *tierra.

Al altere latere, le forma international de un parola debe esser un tal que cata tracto idiosyncratic del representation de illo in un singule lingua particular debe esser explicabile como un mutation monolingue de illo. Illo debe esser le prototypo de que omne formas contribuente es variationes specialisate. Per exemplo, le prototypo de francese terre, espaniol tierra, portugese e italian terra es terra. Le termination francese -e e le diphthongo espaniol -ie- es respectivemente specific disveloppamentos francese e espaniol del original termination neutral -a e del original monophthongo -e-. Le resultante forma international terra pote haber le aspecto de formas italian, portugese e latin, sed illo es “international” e non italian, non portugese e non latin. In multissime casos le prototypo e per consequente le forma international de un parola coincide con le original etymologic, isto es, quando parolas es derivate de latino, le forma ancestre latin. Sed isto non es un necessitate absolute. Si le diphthongo de tierra non esseva un peculiaritate espaniol, sed existeva etiam in italiano e francese, le prototypo e per consequente le forma international non esserea terra sed *tierra.

A more typical (and more complex) instance is that of Latin causa which appears in the modern languages as two distinct words, one represented by Italian, Spanish, Portuguese causa and French, English cause; the other by Italian, Spanish cosa, Portuguese cousa, and French chose. The prototype of the former is causa, that of the latter cosa, from which the French initial ch- and final -e as well as the Portuguese diphthong -ou are peculiarly French and Portuguese deviations, explicable in terms of specifically French and Portuguese sound laws. The transformation of Latin -au into -o- is a development characteristically international.

Un exemplo plus characteristic (e plus complexe) es illo de latin causa que appare in le linguas moderne como duo distincte parolas, le un representate per italian, espaniol, portugese causa e francese, anglese cause, le altere per italian, espaniol cosa, portugese cousa e francese chose. Le prototypo del prime es causa, e illo del altere es cosa, de que le ch- initial e le -e final in le francese e le diphthongo -ou- in portugese es deviationes peculiarmente francese e portugese, que pote esser explicate como effectos de leges phonetic francese e portugese. Le mutation de latin -au- in -o- es un disveloppamento de character international.

In keeping with the general goal of evolving non-specialized international forms, the prototypes must not be determined by a trait occurring in but one language. A monolingual trait is to be disregarded provided such a procedure does not reduce the international range of the result below the stipulated minimum. To refer again to the example of Latin causa, in the branch yielding the prototype cosa, all contributing forms with the exception of Portuguese show the vowel -o-. If the Portuguese -ou- were not a specifically Portuguese diphthongization of an earlier -o- but rather a survival of the Latin diphthong -au- the resulting form should still show no diphthong since three languages – Spanish, French, Italian – exhibit a simple -o-.

Secundo le objectivo general de crear formas international non-specialisate, le prototypos non debe esser determinate per un tracto que se trova in solmente un singule lingua. Un tracto monolingue sia ignorate proviste que un tal procedura non reduce le sphera international sub le minimo stipulate. Pro referer de novo al exemplo de latin causa, in le branca del prototypo cosa, omne formas contribuente con le exception de portugese monstra le vocal -o-. Si le portugese ou- esseva non un diphthongisation specificamente portugese de un previe -o-, sed plus tosto un tracto remanente del diphthongo -au-, le forma resultante ancora non continerea un diphthongo proque tres linguas – espaniol, francese, italiano – exhibe (*) un simple -o-.

Terminations. – Like all other formative elements, suffixes too appear in fixed prototype forms which do not vary erratically from one case to another. If it is an historical fact that the suffix in English agile and that in fossil are the same, and if furthermore the other contributing languages show them to be alike (as they actually do), then the English difference between this particular -ile and this particular -il must leave no trace in the international forms.

Terminationes. – Como omne altere elementos formative, etiam suffixos appare in definite formas prototypic que non erraticamente varia de un caso a un altere. Si il es un facto historic que le suffixo in anglese agile e illo in fossil es le mesme, e si in plus le altere linguas contribuente revela que illos es equal (lo que in effecto illos es) alora le differentia anglese inter iste particular -ile e iste particular -il non debe monstrar ulle tracia in le formas international.

The common form from which the suffix represented by English -al has evolved in the various languages is a form technically known as the crude form of the Latin oblique cases of -alis, that is to say -ale. This -ale is the ancestor of all the contributing variants but its full spelling is maintained only by Italian. All the other control languages omit the final -e. Therefore the prototype serving as the international form of the suffix omits it likewise and appears as -al.

Le forma commun de que le suffixo representate per anglese -al se ha disveloppate in le varie linguas, es un forma cognite in un conception grammatic como le forma primitive del oblique casos latin de -alis, a saper -ale. Iste -ale es le ancestre de omne variantes contribuente, sed le complete graphia se mantene solmente in italiano. Omne altere linguas de controlo omitte le -e final. Pro isto le prototypo que servi como le forma international del suffixo similemente lo omitte e illo appare como -al.

Somewhat more complex is the case of the parallel suffix evolved from Latin -ilis. It, too, appears in Italian with a final -e in all cases, but the alignment of a pair of illustrations like English civil, agile, Spanish civil, agil, Italian civile, agile, and French civil, agile leads to the introduction of two prototype forms, the one, -il, bearing the stress and omitting the final -e; the other, -ile, equipped with a final -e and occurring after a stressed syllable.

Un pauco plus complexe es le caso del suffixo parallel que originava de latin -ilis. Illo se trova etiam in italiano con le termination -e in omne casos, sed le juxtaposition de un par de exemplos como anglese civil, agile, espaniol civil, agil, italian civile, agile e francese civil, agile face introducer duo formas prototypic, le un, -il, que es accentuate e que omitte le -e final; le altere -le, equipate con un -e final e adjungite a un syllaba accentuate.

These data can be looked at inversely so that – as a general rule applying to the forms entered in this dictionary – a final -e after -l (and likewise after -n- and -r-) turns out to be an indication that the stress must fall on the third last syllable, as in agile (as against civil), in automobile (as against infantil), as in ordine (as against asinin), as in arbore (as against professor), etc. – See also under "Pronunciation," p. liii below.

Iste factos on pote reguardar inversemente assi que – como un regula general que es valide pro formas inserite in le Dictionario un -e final post -l- (e equalmente post -n- e -r-) se monstra esser un indication que le accento debe cader super le antepenultime syllaba, como in agile (opposite a civil), in automobile (opposite a infantil), in ordine (opposite a asinin), in arbore (opposite a professor), etc. Vide etiam le regulas del pronunciation.

Termination of Infinitives. – The prototype procedure outlined above would yield infinitives in -are, -ere, and -ire. As in the case of -al and -il, it is again only Italian that retains he final -e systematically. Since, however, English absorbs Romance verbs as a rule without the Romance infinitive termination, it cannot assist French and the Iberian languages to overrule the conservation of the final -e. If this English "abstention" is not to allow Italian to settle the question in favor of its own unique usage, there remains only the possibility to let the prototype forms of the infinitive follow the model of comparable cases, as for instance that of the suffixes -al and -il. Thus the prototype forms of the infinitive terminations appear as -ar, -er, and -ir. (*)

Termination de infinitivos. – Le procedura con prototypos exponite hic supra producerea infinitivos in -are, -ere e -ire. Como in le caso de -al e -il, il es solmente italiano que retene le -e final normalmente. Post que, totevia, anglese adopta verbos romance in general sin le terminationes del infinitivos romance, illo non pote supportar francese e le linguas iberic pro annullar le conservation del -e final. Si iste “abstention” anglese non debe admitter al italiano resolver le question in favor de su proprie usage unic, remane solmente le possibilitate facer le formas prototypic de infinitivos sequer le modello de casos comparabile, como per exemplo illo del suffixos -al e -il. Assi le formas prototypic del terminationes de infinitivos deveni -ar, -er e -ir.

Since the subdivision of Latin -ere verbs in two groups with the stress on the penult and antepenult respectively is clearly traceable within the sphere of the modern Romance languages, the prototype of the infinitive termination might be determined for each of the two cases separately. The resulting distinction of verbs in -er with the stress on the last syllable and a smaller group of verbs in -ere with the stress on the antepenult would largely correspond to two types of derivation. The verbs in -er would show "weak" derivatives in -it- plus -ion, -ire, -ura, etc., while the verbs in -ere would build such derivatives by adding -ion, -are, -ura, etc. to a "strong" or modified stem. In this Dictionary no such distinction has been made.

Post que le subdivision de verbos latin in -ere in duo gruppos con respectivemente le accento tonic super le penultima e le antepenultima, es clarmente retraciabile intra le sphera del moderne linguas romance, on poterea determinar le termination del infinitivo separatemente pro cata un del duo gruppos. Le distinction resultante de verbos in -er con le accento super le ultime syllaba e un gruppo minor de verbos in -ere con le accento super le antepenultima corresponderea in general con duo typos de derivation. Le verbos in -er fornirea derivationes “debile” in -it- plus ion, -ive, -ura, etc. durante que le verbos in -ere formarea tal derivationes per adder -ion, -ive, -ura, etc. a un radice “forte” o modificate. In le Dictionario un tal distinction non ha essite exequite.

Termination of Adjectives. – A special problem is posed by the class of adjectives which maintain in all Romance languages a difference between masculine and feminine forms. Here the prototype procedure collides with a point of grammar which must be discussed at this time although grammatical questions in general have no place in a purely lexical discussion.

Terminationes de adjectivos. – Un problema special es ponite per le categoria de adjectivos que mantene in omne linguas romance un differentia inter formas masculin e feminin. Hic le procedura del prototypos collide con un tracto grammatic que debe esser considerate nunc ben que questiones grammatic generalmente non ha loco in un discussion purmente lexical.

The prototype of English, French grand, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese grande emerges smoothly as grande. However, in cases like that of the international word corresponding to English saint, the outcome is undecided because here the original inflectional system of Latin survives in all the Romance languages not only with a distinct form for the plural but also with distinct masculine and feminine forms. The adjectival prototype of English, French saint, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian santo would be *sancto, but that of English saint, French sainte, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian santa would be *sancta. When used as nouns to represent a male or female saint, the forms sancto and sancta are satisfactory. But with adjectival functions they would be usable only if the grammar of the international language were to keep up a corresponding gender distinction.

Le prototypo de anglese, francese grand, italian, espaniol, portugese grande emerge lisiemente como grande. Tamen, in casos como illo del parola international que corresponde a anglese saint, le resultante es indecise proque hic le original systema inflectional supervive in tote le linguas romance non solmente con un forma distincte pro le plural sed etiam con distincte formas masculin e feminin. Le prototypo adjectival de anglese, francese saint, espaniol, portugese, italian santo esserea *sancto, sed illo de anglese saint, francese sainte, espaniol, portugese, italian santa esserea *sancta. Quando usate como substantivos pro representar un persona sancte, le forma sancto pro le masculo e le forma sancta pro le femina es satisfactori. Sed in functiones adjectival illos esserea usabile solmente si le grammatica del lingua international debeva conservar un distinction correspondente de generes.

It is possible to envisage the international vocabulary in operation with a grammatical system which does maintain a gender distinction. Attempts in this direction are on record, but they form a decided minority. The procedure adopted in this Dictionary is the one favored by most users of the international vocabulary. All adjectives are treated as though Latin and the Romance languages knew only the one type of adjective in which there is no distinction between masculine and feminine. The resulting dictionary entries exhibit no difference in termination between the types grande and sancte.

Il es possibile figurar se le vocabulario international in functionamento con un systema grammatic que in effecto mantene un distinction de generes. Tentativas in iste direction esseva notate, sed illos forma un minoritate. Le procedura applicate in le Dictionario es illo que es favorite per le majoritate de usatores del vocabulario international. Omne adjectivos es tractate como si latino e le linguas romance cognosceva solmente le singule typo de adjectivos in que il ha nulle distinction inter masculin e feminin. Le entratas resultante in le Dictionario exhibe nulle differentias in terminationes inter le typos grande e sancte.

Forms of International Words in Derivational Series. – The prototype, as discussed so far, may be defined as the nearest common documented or hypothetical ancestor from which all contributing variants can be developed in accordance with the individual laws and motives operating in the various languages considered. This implies that in the case of Latin-derived nouns and adjectives the prototype is normally neither coincident with nor based upon the original nominative (i.e., the form conventionally entered in dictionaries) but rather that it will have the appearance of the crude (i.e., truncated) form of the Latin oblique cases. This is so because the Romance languages, when – in the course of their development from Latin – they abolished the declensional system of nouns and adjectives, did not normally preserve one case at the expense of all the others; they normally preserved a composite of the various oblique cases. French pied, Spanish pie, etc. did not develop from Latin pes but from Latin pede which may be called a combination of pedem, pedis, etc.

Forma de parolas international in series derivational. – Le prototypo, como discutite usque hic, on pote definir como le plus proxime commun ancestre documentate o hypothetic de que omne variantes contribuente pote disveloppar se in accordo con le leges e motivos individual que functiona in le varie linguas considerate. Isto implica que in le caso de substantivos e adjectivos que originava in latino le prototypo normalmente ni coincide con ni se basa super le nominativo original (isto es le forma que es conventionalmente inserite in le dictionarios) sed plus tosto que illo ha le aspecto del crude (i.e. truncate) forma del casos oblique latin. Isto es proque le linguas romance, quando – in le curso de lor disveloppamento ex latino – illos abandonava le systema de declinationes de substantivos e adjectivos, normalmente non preservava un caso al costo de tote le alteres; illos normalmente preservava un composito del varie casos oblique. Francese pied, espaniol pie, etc. non proveniva ab latin pes sed ab latin pede que on pote vider como un representante de pedem, pedis, etc.

Now it happens to be the stems of the Latin oblique cases (i.e., the stem at the base of the international prototype) which appears again in the derivatives from nouns and adjectives. A word like temporal (whether it is considered in its English or any other variant) does not come from the stem of Latin tempus but from that of temporis, tempore, etc. A word like pontifical is not based on the stem of Latin pontifex but on that of pontificem, etc.

Nunc il es le radice del casos oblique latin (i.e. le radice como base del prototypo international) que appare de novo in le derivationes ab substantivos e adjectivos. Un parola como temporal (considerate o in su variante anglese o in ulle altere variante) non proveniva ab le radice latin tempus sed ab illo de temporis, tempore, etc. Un parola como pontifical se basa non super le radice de latin pontifex sed super illo de pontificem, etc.

The prototype of English pontiff and the corresponding Romance variants which establish the internationality of the word, is pontifice. That of pontifical and its Romance equivalents is pontifical. The continuity of form in the prototype pair pontifice-pontifical (in contrast to English pontiff-pontifical or German Pontifex-pontifikal) is an important feature of the international vocabulary. It permits the interpretation of pontifical, as it were, as a special form for special uses of pontifice just as, let us say, brotherly in English might be called a special, that is, the adjectival form of brother. If this feature is to be generally characteristic of the international language, derivatives must always be made to have a bearing on the prototype forms that constitute its vocabulary. For instance, the prototype of Italian tempo, Spanish tiempo, Portuguese tempo, French temps, must, in view of the derivatives, become tempore, despite the fact that the nearest common ancestor form of those variants is tempus - or at least, if French is disregarded, tempo. Italian cuore, Spanish corazón, Portuguese coração, cor, French coeur do not appear as core, which would reflect the Vulgar Latin declension cor, coris (instead of classical cor, cordis) but are standardized as corde, in view of the derivative cordial, a Medieval Latin formation with the suffix -ial on the stem corde.

Le prototypo de anglese pontiff e correspondente variantes romance que determina le internationalitate del parola es pontifice. Illo de anglese pontifical e su equivalentes romance es pontifical. Le consistentia de forma in le duo prototypic pontifice-pontifical (in contrasto a anglese pontiff-pontifical o german Pontifex pontifikal) es un tracto importante del vocabulario international. Illo permitte le interpretation de pontifical, pro si dicer, como un forma special pro uso special de pontifice justo como, dice-nos, brotherly in anglese on poterea appellar un forma special, isto es, le forma adjectival de brother. Si iste tracto debe esser generalmente characteristic del lingua international, on debe semper facer derivationes haber un relation con le formas prototypic que constitue su vocabulario. Per exemplo, le prototypo de italian tempo, espaniol tiempo, portugese tempo, francese temps debe esser; viste le derivationes, tempore, malgrado le facto que le plus proxime forma ancestre commun de iste variantes es tempus o al minus, si francese es ignorate, tempo. Italian cuore, espaniol corazón, portugese coração, cor, francese cœur non converge in core que reflecterea le declination in latino vulgar cor, coris (in vice de classic cor, cordis) sed es standardisate como corde, viste le derivation cordial, un forma in latino ancestral con le suffixo -ial post le radice corde.

Word Families. – The bearing which, in the prototype procedure, derivatives have on their base, establishes in the standardized international vocabulary clear continuities in derivational series. Such series, often clustered in more or less extensive word families, exist in all the control languages. In many cases, however, they have become blurred by peculiar trends or historical "accidents," and it becomes one of the most important functions of the prototype technique to give back to them their due scope. Blurred series like English letter-literal or publish-publication emerge in the international vocabulary in clear continuities as littera-litteral, publicar-publication. This is of the utmost importance for the free formation of autonomous derivatives in an auxiliary language.

Familias de parolas. – Le relation que, in le procedura de prototypos, derivationes ha con lor base, establi in le standardisate vocabulario international clar consistentias in series derivational. Tal series, frequentemente cumulate in familias de parolas, plus o minus extense, existe in omne linguas de controlo. Sed in multe casos illos ha devenite indistincte per peculiar tendentias o “accidentes” historic, e il deveni un del plus importante functiones del technica de prototypos render a illos lor debite sphera de application. Indistincte gruppos como letter-litteral o publish-publication se manifesta in le vocabulario international in clar gruppos consistente como littera-litteral, publicar-publication. Isto es importantissime pro le libere formation de derivationes autonome in un lingua auxiliar.

The principle which governs the limitation of derivational series or word families in the international vocabulary is that of a parallel between formal and semantic continuities. Since the idea of causal is a derivative from that of cause, the corresponding standardized words appear in a formally continuous series as causa-causal. Since, on the other hand, the idea of causal is in no way a derivative from thing (although French chose, Spanish cosa, etc. are historical developments from Latin causa), the standardized international word corresponding to thing does not appear in the same series but emerges as cosa. The prototypes cosa and causa belong, in terms of the standardized international vocabulary, to two different families, although the corresponding words in the Romance control languages are all members of the one etymological family of Latin causa.

Le principio que determina le limitation de gruppos derivational o familias de parolas in le vocabulario international es illo de un parallelo inter consistentias formal e semantic. Post que le idea de causal es un derivation de illo de causa, le correspondente vocabulo standardisate appare in un gruppo formalmente consistente como causa-causal. Post que, al altere latere, le idea de causa es nullemente un derivation del anglese thing (malgrado que francese chose, espaniol cosa, etc. es disveloppamentos historic de latin causa), le standardisate parola international que corresponde a thing non appare in le mesme gruppo sed emerge como cosa. Le prototypos causa e cosa pertine in le quadro del vocabulario international a duo differente familias, ben que tote le parolas correspondente in le linguas romance de controlo es membros del singule familia etymologic de latin causa.

These and related aspects of the prototype technique and its results are particularly significant in the case of certain verbs and their derivatives. A more detailed analysis of some verb families may prove useful at this point.

Iste e affin aspectos del technica de prototypos e su resultatos es specialmente significante in le caso de certe verbos e lor derivationes. Un analysis plus detaliate de alicun familias de verbos pote esser utile in iste respecto.

Tener is the prototype of Italian tenere, Spanish tener, Portuguese ter, French tenir. The Latin ancestor word is tenere, which is the head of a large family of derivatives and compounds. Among the derivatives that are international and appear also in English, are tenace, tenacitate, tenor, 'tenacious, tenacity, tenor,' etc. In Latin the compounds of tenere appear with a characteristic vowel shift as abstinere, continere, obtinere, etc. (with derivatives of both the types abstinentia and retentio). The modern languages did not maintain this and similar vowel shifts in the compound infinitives but adapted them to the form of the simple verb, e.g., Spanish tener-abstener, French tenir-contenir, etc. However, the international derivatives from some of these compounds (abstinente, continente, etc.) force them back into the Latin pattern and the infinitives appear in the international vocabulary as abstiner, confiner, pertiner, but detener, intertener, mantener, obtener, retener, sustener.

Tener es le prototypo de italian tenere, espaniol tener, portugese ter, francese tenir. Le ancestre latin es tenere, que es le capite de un grande familia de derivationes e compositos. Inter le derivationes que es international e que se trova etiam in anglese, es tenace, tenacitate, tenor, ‘tenacious, tenacity, tenor’, etc. In latino le compositos de tenere appare con un characteristic mutation de vocal in abstinere, continere, obtinere, etc. (con derivationes de ambe typos abstinentia e retentio). Le linguas moderne non manteneva iste e similar mutationes de vocal in le infinitivos composite sed adaptava los al forma del simple verbo, per exemplo, espaniol tener-abstener, francese tenir, contenir, etc. Tamen, le derivationes international de alicunes de iste compositos (abstinente, continente, etc.) repelle los ad in le patrono latin e le infinitivos appare in le vocabulario international como abstiner, continer, pertiner, sed detener, intertener, mantener, obtener, retener, sustener.

In the case of this verb family, the different branches are interlinked by a comparatively clear continuity in meaning. The idea of 'to hold' is everywhere preserved: confiner is "to hold as contents" or "to hold back"; mantener is "to uphold"; detener "to hold in custody"; etc. A case where one branch of an etymological verb family has become completely detached, both in form and meaning, both in the control languages and hence in the international vocabulary, is that of Latin pendere 'to suspend' and 'to weigh' with the derivative pensum 'something weighted, a weight.' Its frequentative pensare 'to weigh' and figuratively 'to ponder, consider' gave rise in the Romance languages to two distinct derivational series. The words for 'to weigh' are Italian pesare, Spanish and Portuguese pesar, French peser (cf. also English to poise). They are completely detached, in form as well as in meaning, from the Romance words for 'to think': Italian pensare, Spanish and Portuguese pensar, French penser, whose standardized form is pensar and whose derivatives appear as pensative 'pensive' and pensator 'thinker,' etc. In the modern languages none of these words reveals itself either formally or semantically as a derivative from 'to weigh.' Hence the international word for 'to weigh' is not influenced by them and appears as pesar, which may be taken as a derivative from peso 'weight' (the prototype of Italian, Spanish, Portuguese peso, French poids, also English poise, from the abovementioned Latin pensum); and peso-pesar constitute a new family independent from pensar.

In le caso de iste familia de verbos le differente brancas es concatenate per un assatis clar consistentia in signification. Le idea de anglese “to hold” es preservate in omne verbos: continer es “to hold as contents” o “to hold back”; mantener es “to uphold”; detener “to hold in custody”; etc. Un caso in que un del brancas de un familia etymologic de verbos se ha completemente distachate, tanto in forma como senso, tanto in le linguas de controlo como per consequente in le vocabulario international, es illo de latin pendere “to suspend” e “to weigh” con le derivation pensum ‘something weighted, a weight’. Su frequentativo pensare ‘to weigh’ e in senso figurative ‘to ponder, consider’ faceva surger in le linguas romance duo distincte series derivational. Le parolas pro ‘to weigh’ es italian pesare, espaniol e portugese pesar, francese peser (confronta etiam anglese to poise). Illos es toto distachate tanto in forma como in signification ab le parolas romance pro ‘to think’: italian pensare, espaniol e portugese pensar, francese penser, cuje forma standardisate es pensar e cuje derivationes se presenta in pensative, pensator, etc. In le linguas moderne nulle de iste parolas se manifesta, ni in forma ni semanticamente, como un derivation de ‘to weigh’. Per consequente le parola international pro ‘to weigh’ non es influentiate per illos e appare como pesar que on pote reguardar como un derivation de peso ‘weight’ (le prototypo de italian, espaniol, portugese peso, francese poids, etiam anglese poise ab le hic supra mentionate latin pensum); e peso-pesar constitue un novelle familia independente de pensar.

A slightly different case occurs in the family of Latin prehendere, prendere 'to seize.' The derivative prehensio, prensio 'act of seizing' is represented in the control languages by Italian prensione, Spanish prensión, Portuguese preensão, French préhension, English prehension, which yield the prototypes prehension and prension. The Latin contracted form prensio has produced another series entirely detached from the first. This series is represented by Italian prigione, Spanish prisión, Portuguese prisão, French, English prison. Phonetically all these national variants have in common the loss of the Latin n before s and the change of the e in the stem into i. Semantically, too, no connection is felt between 'prison' and 'act of seizing.' Furthermore, the derivatives built on prison – e.g., prisoner, to imprison, and their Romance equivalents – stand in close relation only to their immediate base and not at all to the original Latin family of prehendere. Thus there results a detached family prision, prisionero, imprisionar, etc.

Un caso legiermente differente es presentate per le familia de latin prehendere, prendere ‘to seize’. Le derivation prehensio, prensio ‘act of seizing’ es representate in le linguas de controlo per italian prension, espaniol prensión, portugese preensão, francese préhension, anglese prehension, que rende le prototypos prehension e prension. Le contrahite forma latin prensio ha producite un altere serie toto distachate del prime. Iste serie es representate per italian prigione, espaniol prisión, portugese prisão, francese e anglese prison. Phoneticamente omne iste variantes national ha in commun le perdita del latin n ante s e le cambiamento de e in i. Etiam semanticamente on percipe nulle connexion inter ‘prison’ e ‘act of seizing’. In plus le derivationes construite de prison, per exemplo, prisoner, to imprison e lor equivalentes romance ha un stricte relation solmente con lor immediate base e non del toto con le familia latin original de prehendere. Assi resulta un familia distachate prision, prisionero, imprisionar, etc.

Non-Latin Examples. – The illustrations of the prototype technique presented so far are all concerned with words either derived from Latin or built of Latin material. Additional illustrations are required for the following groups: 1) Words of Greek origin, including classical formations – borrowed directly or transmitted by Latin – as well as neologisms built of Greek word-material. 2) Words of Germanic origin which penetrated into the Romance languages in post-classical times and have become fully assimilated. 3) Foreign words  which were taken over at various times from various sources outside the Romance-English language group and which have become assimilated to a higher or lesser degree.

Exemplos non-latin. – Le illustrationes del technica de prototypos presentate usque hic es omnes concernite con parolas derivate de latino o construite de material latin. Illustrationes additional es requirite pro le sequente gruppos: 1) parolas de origine grec includente formationes classic – importate directemente o transmittite via latino – como etiam neologismos construite de grec material lexical. 2) parolas de origine germanic que penetrava in le linguas romance in un periodo post-classic e toto se assimilava in illos. 3) parolas foranee que esseva prendite a varie periodos de plure fontes foras del gruppo de linguas romance e anglese e que se assimilava in un mesura major o minor.

1. – In the case of words of Greek origin it happens quite often that formations which have the semantic value of derivatives are formally detached from what might be taken as their base. In the standardized vocabulary they exert consequently no influence on the latter's form. Thus the international form of therapeutic has no bearing on that of therapy, for although one is clearly the adjective pertaining to the other, there is no direct derivational relationship between them. Both are ultimately derived from an identical third, the Greek verb therapeuein. 'Therapy' appears in the international vocabulary as therapia and 'therapeutic' as therapeutic. The semantic interdependence of the two is formally as little accounted for in the international vocabulary as in the vocabularies of all the control languages. They appear in the Dictionary as two unrelated entries.

1. – Inter le parolas de origine grec il ha multe formationes con le valor semantic de derivationes que formalmente es distachate de lo que poterea esser considerate como lor base. In le vocabulario standardisate illos consequentemente exerce nulle influentia super le forma del base. Assi le forma international de therapeutic non ha un liga formative con therapia, nam ben que le un es clarmente le adjectivo que pertine al altere, il non ha un directe relation derivational inter illos. Al fin ambes es derivate de un tertie vocabulo, le verbo grec therapeuein. ‘Therapy’ appare in le vocabulario international como therapia e ‘therapeutic’ como therapeutic. Le interdependentia semantic del duo non se reflecte plus in le vocabulario international que in le vocabularios de omne linguas de controlo. Illos appare in le Dictionario como duo entratas non parentate.

In other instances the formal relationship by derivation which did exist in Greek has been totally severed in the modern languages which treat these words exactly like those of the type therapia-therapeutic. This severance is often due to the fact that members of a given derivational series in Greek were taken over by Latin or the modern languages as individual words whose connection with other Greek words of the same family (separately taken over by the same languages) was not made apparent in their forms. Greek phlegmatikos was actually a derivative from phlegma on the inflectional stem phlegmat-, yet this latter word appears in no modern language and certainly in none of the members of the Anglo-Romance control group in a form corresponding to the old inflectional or deriving stem. It is represented everywhere by the Greco-Latin nominative and appears correspondingly in the international vocabulary as phlegma, uninfluenced by its companion adjective phlegmatic.

In altere casos le formal relation per derivation que de facto existeva in greco ha essite toto disrumpite in le linguas moderne que tracta iste vocabulos exactemente como illos del typo therapia-therapeutic. Iste disruption es in multe casos debite al facto que membros de un certe gruppo derivational in greco esseva prendite per le latino o per le linguas moderne como vocabulos separate cuje connexion con altere vocabulos grec del mesme familia (prendite separatemente per iste linguas) non esseva visibilisate in lor formas. Grec phlegmatikos esseva effectivemente un derivation de phlegma super le radice inflectional phlegmat-. Totevia iste vocabulo non appare in un del linguas moderne e certemente non in un del membros del anglo-romance gruppo de controlo in un forma que corresponde con le vetule radice inflectional o derivative. Illo es representate ubique per le nominativo grecolatin e appare conformemente in le vocabulario international como phlegma non influentiate per su adjectivo associate phlegmatic.

In most words of Greek origin, however, the formal continuity of derivational series emerges in the international vocabulary as clearly as it does in the case of words of Latin origin.

In le majoritate del vocabulos de origine grec, totevia le consistentia formal de series derivational se manifesta in le vocabulario international tanto clarmente como isto eveni in le caso de vocabulos de origine latin.

2. – Next to Greek, the most important non-Romance contributors to the international vocabulary are doubtless the Germanic languages and dialects. Their role in the international vocabulary gives rise to two special observations.

2. – Post le greco, le plus importante contributiones non-romance al vocabulario international es sin dubita le linguas e dialectos germanic. Lor parte in le vocabulario international face surger duo observationes special.

There are a good many instances of English words of Germanic origin which are related to words in the other control languages by Indo-European cognateship. Examples are beech and Spanish haya; father and Italian padre; brother and French frère; etc. In all such instances the Germanic form (provided of course there is perfect formal and semantic correspondence) can be considered a contributing variant that adds to the international range of the word in question. As for the prototype technique, words of this category must be standardized exclusively on the basis of their Romance variants. Here the inclusion of Germanic cognate forms would produce prototypes on an Indo-European basis which is much too narrow to support an international vocabulary. Thus French frère Italian fratello (with a suffix that may be disregarded), and English brother establish the internationality of a word which is represented by the standardized form fratre, determined without reference to the Germanic variant.

Il ha un grande numero de casos de parolas anglese de origine germanic que es parentate a parolas in altere linguas de controlo per un affinitate indoeuropee. Exemplos es anglese beech e espaniol haya; anglese father e italian padre; anglese brother e francese frère; etc. In omne tal casos le forma germanic (naturalmente sub le condition que il ha un perfecte correspondentia formal e semantic) pote esser reguardate como un variante contribuente que adde al extension international del parola concernite. Quanto al technica del prototypos, parolas de iste categoria debe standardisar se exclusivemente super le base de lor variantes romance. Hic le inclusion de cognate formas germanic producerea prototypos super un base indo-europee que es multo troppo stricte pro supportar un vocabulario international. Assi francese frère, italian fratello (con un suffixo que pote esser ignorate) e anglese brother determina le internationalitate de un parola que es representate per le forma standardisate fratre, sin referentia al variante germanic.

A related and considerably more important problem is that of words of Germanic origin represented by borrowed variants in the Romance control languages, whether or not they are supported by an inherited form in English. Most words of this category were taken over by the Romance languages during the early Middle Ages when Germanic supremacy, especially in the fields of law and warfare, made itself felt in all parts of western Europe. If the English form of such words is available (and generally it is), it can again be considered a variant of the Romance forms, fit to add to the international range of the word in question but not suitable to enter into the determination of its prototype. French hareng, Italian aringa, Spanish, Portuguese arenque are all Romance variants of West Germanic haring and thus identical by Germanic cognateship with English herring and German Hering. The meaning of the word raises no new problems. It has full international range throughout the control languages. For the determination of its prototype the inclusion of the English and German variants would produce a result on a Germanic basis. The exclusion of English and German produces the prototype haringo which is the form by which this word is represented in the standardized international vocabulary.

Un problema contigue e considerabilemente plus importante es illo de parolas de origine germanic representate per prestate variantes in le romance linguas de controlo, si o non illos es supportate per un forma hereditate in anglese. Le major parte del parolas de iste specie esseva adoptate per le linguas romance durante le medievo quando le suprematia germanic, specialmente in le campos de lege e guerra, esseva perceptibile in omne regiones del mundo occidental. Si le forma anglese de tal parolas es disponibile (e generalmente illo lo es), illo pote de novo esser reguardate como un variante del formas romance, apte pro adder se al extension international del parola in question, sed non commode pro contribuer al determination de su prototypo. Francese hareng, italian aringa, espaniol e portugese arenque es omnes variantes romance de west-germanic haring e assi identic per le parentato germanic con anglese herring e german Hering. Le signification del parola non causa nove problemas. Illo ha un plen international extension in omne linguas de controlo. Pro le determination de su prototypo le inclusion del variantes anglese e german producerea un resultato super un base germanic. Le exclusion de anglese e germano produce le prototypo haringo, que es le forma per le qual iste parola es representate in le vocabulario international standardisate.

3. – As for the standardization of foreign words that were borrowed at a more recent date from different sources outside the Romance-English group, a distinction must be made between those which have become fully assimilated in all the languages of adoption and those which, having retained their original form, are always felt to be "foreign." In the first category there are a great many words of extra-European origin which were introduced into the European tongues by way of Spanish or Portuguese. In many instances the Iberian languages show a closer similarity to the phonetic structure of the original than the second-hand borrowers. For instance, the equivalents of English carafe in the other control languages are Italian caraffa, French carafe, and Spanish/Portuguese garrafa. The last named, which comes closest to the original Arabic gharrâf, would determine the prototype of all the modern variants as *garrafa if the initial g- as a trait limited to one control or source unit could not be overruled by the initial c- found everywhere else. The resulting international form is carrafa.

3. – Quanto al standardisation de parolas foranee que esseva adoptate in un tempore plus recente ab differente fontes foras del gruppo romance-anglese, un distinction es a facer inter illos que se ha toto assimilate in omne linguas adoptive e illos que ha retenite lor forma original e que es semper sentite esser “foranee”. In le prime categoria il ha multissime parolas de origine extra-europee que se introduceva in le idiomas europee via espaniol o portugese. In multe casos le linguas iberic monstra un similaritate plus stricte al structura phonetic del original que le linguas adoptante de secunde mano. Per exemplo, le equivalentes del anglese carafe in le altere linguas de controlo es italian caraffa, francese carafe, e espaniol/portugese garrafa. Iste ultime, que es le plus proxime al original arabe gharrâf, determinarea le prototypo de omne variantes moderne como *garrafe si le g- initial qua un tracto limitate a un del unitates fonte o de controlo non poteva esser excludite per le c- initial de omne alteres. Le resultante forma international es carrafa.

Derivatives from these relatively recent loan words are not very frequent. Where they do occur, they influence the prototype in exactly the same way as in all other cases. An example is the international word for 'tea.' Italian, Spanish te, French thé, English tea correspond to the name of this plant and beverage in the Amoy dialect of China; Portuguese cha and Italian cia (a special word for 'teaplant') reflect the Mandarin variant. The combination of these two branches might prove quite problematic if it were not for the existence of the international derivative theina which serves to determine the prototype of the base word as the.

Derivationes de iste adoptiones relativemente recente non es multo frequente. Quando illos occurre illos influentia le prototypo exactemente del mesme maniera como in omne altere casos. Un exemplo es le parola international pro the. Italian , espaniol te, francese thé, anglese tea corresponde al nomine de iste planta e bibita in le dialecto de Amoy in China; portugese chá e italian cià (un parola special pro ‘theiero’) reflecte le variante mandarin. Le combination de iste duo brancas poterea esser toto problematic si non existeva le derivation international theina, que servi a determinar le prototypo del parola basic como the.

Finally, foreign words which have been introduced into the control languages in comparatively recent times and have retained their foreign character, do so also in the standardized international vocabulary. Examples are: allegro, aria, imbroglio from Italian; cargo, matador, rancho from Spanish; bouquet, bureau, chassis from French; budget, interview, reporter, standard from English; hinterland, kirschwasser, landwehr from German. In some cases the modern languages have built on these foreign loans independent derivatives of which only the endings have to be standardized. Thus we have interviewar on interview, standardisar on standard, etc. In the Dictionary such "foreign" words are entered without accent marks and diacritical signs except when such a procedure would suggest an absurd pronunciation. Thus we have French defaite instead of défaite but German kümmel. English words reveal at times by their spelling whether they were internationalized on a British or American basis.

Al fin, parolas foranee que se introduceva in le linguas de controlo in un tempore comparativemente recente e que reteneva lor character foranee, face isto etiam in le standardisate vocabulario international. Exemplos es: allegro, aria, imbroglio ab italiano; cargo, matador, rancho ab espaniol; bouquet, bureau, chassis ab francese; budget, interview, reporter, standard ab anglese; hinterland, kirschwasser, landwehr ab germano. In qualque casos le linguas moderne ha construite super iste prestos foranee derivationes independente con determination solmente del terminationes. Assi nos ha interviewar de interview, standardisar de standard, etc. In le Dictionario tal parolas “foranee” esseva inserite sin accentos e diacriticos excepte quando isto suggererea un absurde pronunciation. Assi nos ha francese defaite in loco de défaite sed german kümmel. Parolas anglese revela a vices per lor orthographia si illos esseva internationalisate super un base britannic o american.

Summary of Definitions – The following formulations are not intended to be self-explanatory. They are summaries of the foregoing analyses which serve to elucidate them and provide pertinent illustrations for them.

Summario de definitiones – Le sequente formulationes non es intendite a esser auto-explicative. Illos es summarios del precedente analyses que servi pro elucidar los e provider illustrationes pertinente a illos.

1. Eligibility. – A word is eligible in the international vocabulary if it occurs – with corresponding meanings and in forms deviating from etymological identity by nothing more than a meaningless affix – in the current or historical vocabulary of at least three of the source units, Italian, Spanish/Portuguese, French and English and also German and Russian; it carries with it all formations differing from it in both form and meaning by the addition or omission of a "normal" affix, provided such formations occur in at least one of the units listed.

1. Eligibilitate. – Un parola es eligibile in le vocabulario international si illo se trova – con significationes correspondente e in formas que devia del identitate etymologic per nihil altere que un affixo sin senso – in le actual o historic vocabulario de al minus tres del linguas fonte, italiano, espaniol/portugese, francese e anglese, e etiam germano e russo; illo porta con se omne formationes que differe de illo e in forma e in signification per le addition o le omission de un affixo “normal “, sub le condition que tal formationes se trova in al minus un del linguas mentionate.

2. Form. – The form under which a duly admitted word enters the international vocabulary is the prototype or nearest documented or theoretical ancestor form common to all its variants as well as to the stems of their derivatives in the contributing languages; it is determined in such a way that its variants in the source languages and the stems of their derivatives deviate from it only in accordance with the characteristic behavior of the languages they represent – with the proviso that the resultant form must never be conditioned by a trait restricted to one single contributing variant.

2. Forma. – Le forma in que un parola debitemente admittite entra in le vocabulario international es le prototypo o le forma ancestre le plus proxime documentate o theoretic que es commun a omne su variantes como etiam al radices de lor derivationes in le linguas contribuente; illo es determinate de tal maniera que su variantes in le linguas fonte e le radices de lor derivationes devia de illo solmente in accordo con le conducta characteristic del linguas que illos representa – sub le condition que le forma resultante debe nunquam esser determinate per un tracto restringite a un singule variante contribuente.

Meaning of International Words. – The criteria which determine what shall or shall not appear in the standardized international vocabulary are all concerned with words considered simultaneously as forms and expressions of meanings. Both the form and the meaning of a given word must have the required international range to assure the word of representation in the standardized vocabulary. Yet, while the problems arising in this connection are smoothly covered by a set of rules in so far as they are concerned with matters of form, the implications of the internationality of meaning are often delicate.

Signification de parolas international. – Le criterios que determina lo que apparera o non apparera in le standardisate vocabulario international es omnes concernite con parolas simultaneemente considerate como formas e expressiones de significationes. E le forma e le signification de un date parola debe haber le requirite extension international pro assecurar al parola le representation in le vocabulario standardisate. Tamen, durante que le problemas que se presenta in iste respecto es commodemente tractate per alicun regulas in tanto que illos es concernite per considerationes super le forma, le implicationes del internationalitate del signification es frequentemente delicate.

Negatively speaking, a word which is represented in the required number of control languages by "identical forms" with different meanings, must be excluded from the standardized vocabulary. The point may be illustrated by reference to the standardized form planger which corresponds to Italian piangere, Spanish plañir, French plaindre, and (archaic and dialectal) English to plain. The Latin ancestor form plangere signified 'to beat (with a noise); to beat one's breast (in grief); to lament aloud.' The Italian variant means 'to weep, sob, or wail'; the Spanish form signifies' to groan, lament'; the French one, 'to pity'; in English the word formerly had the meaning of 'to complain.' The different languages went different ways in developing the meaning of their variants, and the word would not be represented at all in the international vocabulary if it were not for the phrase planger se de 'to complain of or about,' for which the Romance variants supply the required three-language agreement.

Considerate in senso negative un vocabulo que es representate in le requirite numero de linguas de controlo per “formas identic” con significationes differente debe esser excludite del vocabulario standardisate. Isto pote esser illustrate per referentia al forma standardisate planger que corresponde a italian piangere, espaniol plañir, francese plaindre, e anglese (archaic o dialectic) to plain. Le forma ancestre latin plangere significava ‘batter (con un ruito); batter su pectore (in dolor); lamentar a alte voce’. Le variante italian significa ‘lacrimar, plorar, singultar’; le forma espaniol significa ‘gemer, lamentar’; le francese ‘commiserar, haber pietate de’; in anglese le parola habeva previemente le signification ‘planger se’. Le varie linguas vadeva secundo differente vias in disveloppar le signification de lor variantes, e le parola non esserea representate del toto in le vocabulario international si non pro le expression planger se de pro le qual le variantes romance forni le requirite concordantia trilingue.

Now, the various meanings of the simple verb planger in the ethnic languages might still be recognized as vaguely related, and it might be argued that the discrepancy in the meanings of Italian piangere and French plaindre differs only in degree from the discrepancy in the meanings of for instance French liberté and English liberty which are not quite alike either.

Nunc, in le varie significationes del simple verbo planger on poterea ancora recognoscer un vage similaritate e on poterea argumentar que le discrepantia in le significationes de italian piangere e francese plaindre differe solmente in certe mesura del discrepantia in le significationes de per exemplo francese liberté e anglese liberty, que etiam non es toto le mesme.

However, in the case of liberté-liberty the divergencies are concerned with overtones and connotations due to specific associations and traditional usage. On the other hand, it is the very concept of French plaindre, not a peculiar set of connotations, that differs from that of Italian piangere, and if for the two a common conceptual basis were to be found, it would have to be traced back to Latin and could not be said to be available in either one of the modern variants.

Tamen, in le caso de liberté-liberty es in le divergentias involvite certe significationes accessori debite a associationes specific e usage traditional. Al altere latere, il es le concepto ipse de francese plaindre, non alicun peculiar connotationes, que differe de illo de italian piangere, e si pro iste duo un commun base conceptual deberea esser trovate, isto deberea haber su origine jam in latino e on non poterea asserer que illo es disponibile in un del variantes moderne.

If a concept in this sense is defined as a nucleus of thought crystallized in a word form as its adequate expression, it follows that liberté and liberty represent the same concept; plaindre and piangere represent different concepts. The connotational divergencies in the first example do not affect its representation in the international vocabulary; the conceptual differences of the second exclude it as such from the international vocabulary. That it does occur in it as part of the reflexive planger se is a different matter.

Si un concepto in iste senso es definite como un nucleo de pensar crystallisate in un forma de parola como expression adequate pro illo, il seque que liberté e liberty representa le mesme concepto; plaindre e piangere representa differente conceptos. Le divergentias connotational in le prime exemplo non affice su representation in le vocabulario international; le differentias conceptual del secunde lo exclude del vocabulario international. Que illo totevia se trova in illo como un parte del reflexive planger se es un altere cosa.

The meaning to be established for a given international word is the nuclear concept which its ethnic-language variants have in common. This does not signify that an international word cannot be modulated by connotations, emotional overtones, and the like. All these things, precisely as in each one of the ethnic languages, are matters of style. If, let us say, the international word perla has been established as the form representing the concept 'the shelly concretion of nacre found in the pearl oyster and used as a gem,' there is obviously no reason why it should not be used with reference to an efficient houseworker. In doing so the basic definition is not abandoned, just as the use of the English word pearl in such a context does not imply that the word stands for the concept 'efficient houseworker' but merely that it is to be suggested that the efficient houseworker is as valuable as the shelly concretion in the pearl oyster. Here the semantic continuity between the conceptual core and the metaphor is not broken. If it were broken, the meaning "efficient worker" would be a second concept represented by the same word form. An illustration of this latter type is the English word star which can be used for a luminary of the stage or screen without the implication that he or she may be compared to a celestial body. This particular development by the way is not international. The German or French words for 'a celestial body' can of course also be used with reference to a superior actor or actress but not without the clearly metaphorical implication that the person in question is to be called a celestial body in the firmament of the Thespian art. In both the languages mentioned the detached meaning of English star (the concept 'a superior actor or actress') is often represented by just that word borrowed in its English form.

Le signification que sia determinate pro un date parola international es le concepto nuclear que su variantes in le linguas ethnic ha in commun. Isto non significa que un parola international non pote modular se per connotationes, nuances emotional, etc. Omne iste cosas, precisemente como in cata un del linguas ethnic, concerne stilo. Si, dice-nos, le parola international perla ha essite definite como le forma que representa le concepto ‘le concretion conchylacee de nacre que se trova in le ostrea de perla e que es empleate como un gemma’ il ha obviemente nulle ration proque on non poterea usar lo con respecto a un efficace nettatrice de casa. Per facer isto le definition basic non es abandonate, toto como le uso del parola anglese pearl in un tal contexto non implica que le parola representa ‘efficace nettatrice de casa’ sed solmente que illo suggerera que le efficace nettatrice de casa es tanto preciose quanto le concretion conchylacee in le ostrea de perla. Hic le consistentia semantic inter le nucleo conceptual e le metaphora non se rumpeva. Si illo se rumpeva, le signification ‘efficace nettatrice de casa’ esserea un secunde concepto representate per le mesme forma de parola. Un illustration pro iste ultime typo es le parola anglese star que pote esser usate pro un luminar del theatro o del film sin le implication que ille o illa pote esser comparate a un corpore celeste. A proposito, iste disveloppamento non es international. Le parolas german e francese pro ‘un corpore celeste’ pote naturalmente etiam esser usate con referentia a un actor o actrice superior, sed non sin le implication clarmente metaphoric que le persona concernite sia appellate un corpore celeste in le firmamento del arte dramatic. In ambe linguas mentionate le remote signification de anglese star (le concepto ‘un actor o actrice superior’) es frequentemente representate per precisemente ille parola adoptate in su forma anglese.

In cases where the semantic break between a conceptual core and a mere metaphoric extension is sufficiently international or occurred at an early time in the language of origin of a given word, the result is that the international form stands for two or more conceptual cores. Thus, from the Latin point of view there was a perfect continuity in the semantic development of the verb intendere: from 'to stretch out or towards something' by way of 'to attend, direct one's attention to' to 'to intend, purpose.' From the extension 'to direct one's attention to,' Medieval Latin developed the new core meaning or concept 'to understand' which survives in the Romance languages. The current meaning of French entendre 'to hear,' is a further development of 'to understand' and remains monolingual. Internationally, 'to intend, purpose' and 'to understand,' although they both are offsprings of the same semantic ancestor ('to direct one's attention to'), appear as two distinct concepts. They constitute the two basic meanings of the international word intender.

In casos ubi le ruptura semantic inter un nucleo conceptual e un mer extension metaphoric es sufficientemente international o occurreva in un ancian tempore in le lingua de origine de un date parola, il ha le resultato que le forma international representa duo o plus nucleos conceptual. Assi, del puncto de vista latin il habeva un perfecte consistentia in le disveloppamento semantic del verbo intendere: de ‘extender ab o verso qualque cosa’ via ‘attender, diriger le attention de alicuno a’ a ‘intender, haber in mente, proponer se’. Ab le extension ‘diriger le attention de alicuno a’ le latino medieval disveloppava le nove signification nuclear o concepto ‘comprender, apperciper’ que supervive in le linguas romance. Le signification actual de francese entendre ‘audir’ es un sequente disveloppamento de ‘apperciper’ e remane monolingue. In senso international ‘proponer se, intender’ e ‘comprender, apperciper’, ben que ambes es descendentes del mesme ancestre semantic (‘diriger le attention de alicuno a’), appare como duo distincte conceptos. Illos constitue le duo significationes basic del parola international intender.

Concepts in the sense here envisaged are naturally not always international. The nucleus of thought, 'with one's hands on one's hips,' expressed by the word 'akimbo,' is clearly monolingual. Other languages can circumscribe it with the help of a phrase, e.g., French les mains sur les hanches, but from the French point of view this is as little a concept as les mains sur les epaules 'with one's hands on one's shoulders.'

Conceptos in le senso hic considerate naturalmente non es semper international. Le nucleo de pensamento ‘con le manos super le hancas’ exprimite per le parola anglese ‘akimbo’ es clarmente monolingue. Altere linguas pote circumscriber lo con le adjuta de un locution, per exemplo, francese les mains sur les hanches, sed ab un puncto de vista francese isto es tanto pauco un concepto quanto les mains sur les épaules ‘con le manos super le spatulas’.

English is particularly rich in terms of this sort. Most of them are represented by words belonging to the Germanic stock of the vocabulary, as bleak, to befriend, brittle, etc.; but there are also a good many English words of Romance origin which the language uses to express peculiarly English concepts, as casual, eventual, domineer, etc.

Le anglese es particularmente ric in terminos de iste specie. Le majoritate de illos es representate per parolas que pertine al stock germanic del vocabulario, como bleak, to befriend, brittle, etc.; sed il ha etiam multissime parolas anglese de origine romance que le lingua usa pro exprimer conceptos peculiarmente anglese, como casual, eventual, domineer, etc.

These and similar monolingual concepts are not represented as such in the international vocabulary. They are units of thought or ideas which have crystallized as clear nuclei in definite word forms only in one language. The other languages express them by various noncrystallized phrases, and so does the international vocabulary which must follow international usage.

Iste e simile conceptos monolingue non es representate como tales in le vocabulario international. Illos es unitates de pensamento o ideas que se crystallisava como clar nucleos in definite formas de parolas solmente in un singule lingua. Le altere linguas los exprime per varie locutiones noncrystallisate, e etiam le vocabulario international que debe sequer le usage international, face isto.

THE INTERNATIONAL VOCABULARY

LE VOCABULARIO INTERNATIONAL

This Dictionary comprises some 27,000 entries. It is not a complete compilation of the international vocabulary and could not be intended to be complete.

Le Dictionario comprehende circa 27000 entratas. Illo non es un compilation complete del vocabulario international e illo non poteva esser facite con le intention que illo sia complete.

A bold guess as to the number of international words which the methods outlined above would yield if exploited to the last might run into several hundred thousands. The large majority of the items included in such a "complete" body of international words would be highly specialized terms. Being predominantly technological and scientific or generally learned, their weight contributes greatly to the argument that the international language exists potentially in the ethnic languages and merely waits to be extracted from them. However, many terms in this category are so completely international that after we have found them in one language we feel justified in using them in any other, including the international language, without first consulting the corresponding dictionaries.

Un nette estimation del numero de parolas international que le methodos jam previemente exponite producerea, si istos esseva exploitate usque al ultimo, poterea amontar a plure centos de milles. Le grande majoritate de parolas comprehendite in un tal corpore ‘complete’ de parolas international esserea terminos de alte specialisation. Proque illos es predominantemente technologic e scientific o generalmente docte, lor peso grandemente contribue al argumento que le lingua international existe potentialmente in le linguas ethnic e solmente attende esser extrahite de illos. Tamen, le internationalitate de multe terminos in iste categoria es tanto explicite que habente trovate los in un o altere lingua nos senti que es justificate usar los in omne alteres, etiam in le lingua international, sin previemente consultar le dictionarios correspondente.

If we find the English word cyclonoscope, we need hardly know what it means, let alone consult a dictionary, to conclude that the German equivalent is Zyklonoskop, the French form cyclonoscope, the variant in Italian ciclonoscopio, etc. For the fact of the matter is precisely that words of this kind are not just English, French, German, etc. but international. The international version of cyclonoscopeis cyclonoscopio.

Si nos incontra le parola anglese cyclonoscope, il es a pena necessari saper lo que illo significa; il non mesmo es necessari consultar un dictionario, pro concluder que le equivalente german es Zyklonoskop, le forma francese cyclonoscope, le variante italian ciclonoscopio, etc. Nam le facto es precisemente que vocabulos de iste specie non es specificamente anglese, francese o german, etc. sed international. Le version international de cyclonoscope es cyclonoscopio.

But we may go farther. Not only are there innumerable technical terms in international use, but an additional infinite number which are not to be found anywhere exist potentially in all the languages within the orbit of the international vocabulary and hence in the international language itself. When, for example, the philosopher Lovejoy, for his own purposes, introduced the term retrotensive in one of his works, his readers were of course given an explanation of what the new coinage was meant to express, yet translators could consult no dictionary on how to render the term in any other language. Still, they had no difficulty in determining that the Spanish, Italian, Portuguese forms must be retrotensivo, the German form retrotensif, the French form rétrotensif, etc. Or another example: If an inventor came along with a new gadget designed to expel cigarette butts from the holder the moment a certain degree of nicotine concentration were reached and if this inventor wanted to call his gadget an autoejector, there could be little doubt about the foreign names for the instrument upon its arrival on distant shores in the wake of the spread of civilization. The Germans would call it Autoejektor, the French autoéjecteur, the Italians autoeiettore, etc.

Sed nos pote avantiar. Non solmente il ha innumerabile terminos technic in uso international, sed un infinite numero additional, que non es trovabile in ulle loco, existe potentialmente in omne linguas intra le campo del vocabulario international e per consequente in le lingua international ipse. Quando, per exemplo, le philosopho Lovejoy, pro su proprie proposito, introduceva le termino retrotensive in un de su obras, su lectores recipeva naturalmente un explication de lo que iste neologismo debeva exprimer, sed traductores non poteva consultar un dictionario pro saper como translatar le termino in ulle altere lingua. Tamen illes habeva nulle difficultate in determinar que le formas espaniol, italian, portugese debeva esser retrotensivo, le forma german retrotensiv, le forma francese rétrotensif, etc. Un altere exemplo: Si un inventor presentava un nove mechanismo pro ejectar le resto de un cigarretta ex su tubetto al momento que un certe grado de concentration de nicotina esseva attingite e iste inventor desirava appellar su invention un autoejector, il poterea haber pauc dubita super le nomine pro iste instrumento in altere linguas post su arrivata a costas lontan in le curso del expansion del civilisation. Le germanos lo appellarea Autoejektor, le franceses autoéjecteur, le italianos autoeiettore, etc.

The point to be borne in mind is that the translator from English into any other language within the orbit of the international vocabulary is immediately able to render words like retrotensive and autoejector not because he understands what they mean but because he is aware of their structure. If such an awareness of structural patterns on the translator's part enables him to state what such and such an English word of obvious internationality must be in French, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, German, Russian, and numerous other languages as well, a similar ease of rebuilding such terms in the international language can be attained on the basis of a corresponding awareness of the structural patterns prevailing in the international language. The Dictionary had therefore to be made to include ample illustrative material of all manner and kind of formations from all branches of man's scientific and technological endeavor.

Lo que merita nostre attention es que le traductor ab anglese in qualcunque altere lingua intra le campo del vocabulario international pote immediatemente translatar parolas como retrotensive e autoejector, non proque ille comprende lor signification sed proque ille es conscie de lor structura. Si un tal conscientia de patronos structural possibilisa al traductor determinar lo que un tal o un altere parola anglese de obvie internationalitate debe esser in francese, espaniol, portugese, italiano, germano, russo e etiam numerose altere linguas, un similar commoditate de reconstruer tal terminos in le lingua international es obtenibile super le base de un conscientia correspondente del patronos preponderante in le lingua international. Pro isto le Dictionario debe esser talmente compilate que illo include ample materia illustrative de omne modos e species de formationes ex omne disciplinas del effortios scientific e technologic del homine.

The account of how the Dictionary was made to fulfill this requirement may be merged with the account of how the body of words included in it was selected.

Le conto de como le Dictionario esseva adaptate pro responder a iste requirimentos se misce con un conto de como le corpore del vocabulos inserite esseva seligite.

A dictionary of the international language poses problems sharply distinct from those confronting the makers of dictionaries of fully established languages with a verifiable tradition of usage. If, let us say, a 27,000-word dictionary of English – monolingual or with translations into any other language – were envisaged, the initial task to be dealt with by the lexicographer would be to select from the total body of English words those 27,000 items which his prospective readers could be expected to inquire about most frequently. On the whole the 27,000 most frequent words of the English language would be included.

Un dictionario del lingua international pone problemas clarmente distincte de illos que confronta le facitores de dictionarios pro firmemente establite linguas con un verificabile tradition de usage. Si, dice-nos, un dictionario de 27000 vocabulos anglese – monolingual o con traductiones in un altere lingua – esseva intendite, le travalio initial a facer per le lexicographo esserea le selection ex le tote corpore del parolas anglese de ille 27000 vocabulos que multo probabilemente esserea le plus frequentemente demandate per le futur usatores. In toto le 27000 vocabulos le plus frequente del lingua anglese esserea inserite.

The 27,000 most frequent words of the international language, however, cannot be thus identified. Neither can we know whether a particular international word is frequent or infrequent, nor can we base the selection of items to be included in the Dictionary on the criterion of their importance in any one of the source languages.

Le 27000 vocabulos le plus frequente del lingua international, totevia, non pote esser talmente identificate. Non solmente nos non pote saper si un certe parola international es frequente o infrequente, nos etiam non pote fundar le selection de vocabulos a inserer in le dictionario super le criterio de lor importantia in un o altere lingua fonte.

Among the distinctive features of our approach to the question of the international vocabulary is the fact that the starting point must never be the question, "How do you say in the international language 'desk, doughnut, dumbbell,' or whatever else happens to come to mind?" When the parallel question is asked, "How do you say 'desk, doughnut, dumbbell' in French, German, or Arabic?" the answer, "A desk is this, a dumbbell that, and a doughnut does not exist," is possible because the body of words of those languages is fully established and ready for perusal.

Inter le aspectos distinctive de nostre approximation al question del vocabulario international es le facto que le puncto de partita nullemente sia le question “Como dicer in le lingua international ‘desk, doughnut, dumbbell’ o quecunque altere que adveni al mente?”. Quando es ponite le question parallel “Como dicer in francese, germano o arabe ‘desk, doughnut, dumbbell’?” le responsa “Un ‘desk’ es isto, un ‘dumbbell’ es illo e un ‘doughnut’ non existe”, es possibile proque le corpore de parolas in iste linguas es completemente establite e preste pro scrutinio.

The first job to be tackled had to be the compilation of at least large portions of the international vocabulary without any sort of reference to starting points in English or any other individual language. Furthermore, if secondarily the question about the international equivalent of such and such a word from any particular language is admitted, it should be explicitly preceded by an inquiry as to whether or not the thing, fact, or idea in question is international. For if no one can be expected to give the French, Russian or German word for doughnut if he can prove that the thing itself is unknown to the speakers of those languages, the same privilege should be enjoyed by a person speaking or writing the international language.

Le prime labor a attaccar deberea esser le compilation de al minus grande portiones del vocabulario international sin ulle referentia a punctos de partita in anglese o in ulle altere lingua particular. In plus, si secundarimente le question in re le equivalente international de un o altere parola de alicun lingua particular es admittite, un scrutinio de si o non le concernite cosa, facto o idea es international debe explicitemente preceder. Post que si on non pote expectar que qualque uno es capace a dar le parola francese, russe o german pro ‘doughnut’ si ille pote provar que le cosa ipse es incognite al parlatores de iste linguas, le mesme privilegio deberea esser concedite a un persona qui parla o scribe in le lingua international.

Inversely the international vocabulary, to qualify as the vocabulary of a full-fledged language, must be able to produce an equivalent for every concept which is truly international. It does not follow that noninternational concepts cannot be expressed in the international language. A Russian, German, or Frenchman can very well refer to a doughnut in his own language by using various circumlocutions even though he may find that there is no crystallized term for the thing. Exactly the same  – but nothing more – may be expected of the international language.

Inversemente le vocabulario international, si illo sia le vocabulario de un lingua completemente disveloppate, debe esser capace a presentar un equivalente pro cata notion que es vermente international. De isto non seque que notiones non-international non pote esser exprimite in le lingua international. Un russo, un germano o un francese pote certo referer a un ‘doughnut’ in su proprie lingua per usar varie circumlocutiones mesmo si ille forsan constata que il non ha un termino concrete pro le cosa. Exactemente le mesmo – sed nihil plus – on pote expectar del lingua international.

In the preparation of this Dictionary the technique of checking the internationality of concepts represented in individual languages and of subsequently ascertaining their being covered by the international vocabulary, has been applied after the assembly of an initial stock of international words was completed.

Durante le preparation de iste Dictionario le technica de controlo del internationalitate de notiones representate in linguas individual e de subsequente assecurantia que illos es includite in le lingua international, ha essite applicate post que le collection de un gruppo initial de vocabulos international esseva finite.

The basis from which the initial compilation took off consisted of complete assemblies of all words in the major source languages belonging to a particular etymological word family. The selection of the etymological families to be so treated was naturally guided in a general way by the knowledge that it would be technically impossible to treat the total vocabulary of the source languages in the manner indicated and that a family like that evolved from Latin corpus 'body' or Greek lithos 'stone' should have priority over an item like Latin jurgare 'to quarrel' (from which we have such obscure words as English objurgation) or Greek limos 'hunger' (which produces the English term bulimy 'a morbid form of hunger occurring in idiots' also known as 'canine hunger').

Le base ab le qual le compilation initial partiva consisteva de collectiones complete de omne ille parolas in le major linguas fonte, que pertine a un particular familia etymologic de parolas. Le selection del familias etymologic que sia assi tractate esseva naturalmente guidate in un maniera general per le sapientia que il esserea technicamente impossibile tractar tote le vocabulario del linguas fonte in le maniera indicate e que un familia como illo que evolveva ab latin corpus ‘corpore’ o grec lithos ‘lapide’ deberea haber prioritate super un caso como latin jurgare ‘querelar’ (ab le qual nos ha in anglese tal parolas obscur como objurgation) o grec limos ‘fame’ (le qual produceva in anglese le termino bulimy ‘un forma morbide de fame que occurre in idiotas’ e que es cognite etiam como ‘fame canin’).

One result achieved by the method of etymological family alignments is that it permits the student to see at a glance what etymologically corresponding words there are in the various languages under observation. For example, the English word necessitous has the Italian correspondence necessitoso, it appears in French as necessiteux, but nothing like it existed in Latin or exists now in Spanish and Portuguese. The word necessity, on the other hand, has etymological correspondences practically everywhere. English necessitude existed in Latin and older Italian but is nowhere really alive.

Un resultato particular obtenite per le methodo de alineamento de familias etymologic es que illo permitte al studente constatar a prime vista qual parolas con correspondentia etymologic se trova in le varie linguas observate. Per exemplo, le parola anglese necessitous ha como correspondentia italian necessitoso e illo appare como nécessiteux in francese, sed nihil similar existeva in latino o existe nunc in espaniol e portugese. Al altere latere, le parola anglese necessity ha correspondentias etymologic quasi ubique. Anglese necessitude existeva in latino e in un passate stadio del italiano, sed es in nulle loco realmente vivente.

More important is the fact that the assemblies of complete etymological families bring out the derivational patterns, which are often obscured or disrupted in individual languages, with such clarity that the result may be termed the underlying prototype or international schema of derivation. English paucity, for instance, looks certainly like a derivative with the suffix -ity, but from the English point of view it is not possible to state from what other word it is derived. The Iberian languages and Italian clarify the question. The base word is represented in them by poco and the archaic Italian form pauco which serve to explain the English paucity. Or again the French word crétacé 'cretacious' shows at best a vague or "learned" dependence on craie 'chalk.' But when this craie appears in alignment with Italian creta, the clear Italian pattern creta-cretaceo brings out the obscured but latent French continuity craie-crétacé.

Plus importante es le facto que le collectiones de complete familias etymologic visibilisa le patronos derivational, que es a multe vices obscurate o disrumpite in le linguas individual, con un tal claritate que le resultato pote nominar se le prototypo fundamental o schema international de derivation. Per exemplo, anglese paucity ha certemente le aspecto de un derivation con le suffixo -ity. Sed ab le puncto de vista anglese non es possibile declarar ab qual altere parola illo se derivava. Le linguas iberic e italian clarifica le question. In illos le parola basic es representate per poco e le archaic forma italian pauco, le quales servi a explicar anglese paucity. Un altere exemplo: le parola francese crétacé ‘cretacee’ monstra in le optime caso un vage o docte dependentia de craie ‘creta’. Sed quando iste craie appare in alineamento con italian creta, le clar patrono italian creta-cretaceo face vider le obscurate sed latente consistentia francese craie-crétacé.

Active Word Building. – The clearer the derivational patterns in a given language, the freer will be the permissible use of new or nonce formations. If no English nouns in -ity existed without a base adjective preceding it (that is, if paucity were impossible without *paucous), inversely formations like strangity and sacrity would seem less impossible.

Formation active de parolas. – Quanto plus clar es le patronos derivational in un certe lingua, tanto plus libere essera le uso de nove o occasional formationes. Si substantivos anglese in -ity non existeva sin un adjectivo basic que lo precederea (i.e. si paucity esseva impossibile sin *paucous), inversemente formationes como strangity e sacrity semblarea minus impossibile.

For the international vocabulary the clarity of its derivational patterns is of such essential importance that it was decided to stress it in this Dictionary by an almost unqualified adherence to the principle that no word is listed without simultaneously admitting all its clear compounds, derivatives, and formations preceding it in a derivational series. If the adjective marin 'marine' is listed, it is allowed to take with it the compound submarin 'submarine,' the derivative marinero 'mariner,' and the form mar 'sea' which precedes it. Of course no word is allowed to carry with it dependents not clearly recognizable as such. If the adjective marin has a substantival derivative marina 'navy,' this word does not appear in the Dictionary as a dependent of marin because no one will recognize the signification of marina on the basis of his acquaintance with the adjective marin plus the termination -a. The word marina is in the vocabulary by its own rights. It is international in the required sense all by itself.

Pro le vocabulario international le claritate de su patronos derivational es de importantia tanto essential que isto imponeva le decision de dar peso a illo in le Dictionario per un adherentia quasi inconditional al principio que nulle vocabulo se insere sin le admission simultanee de omne su clar compositos e derivationes, e de formationes precedente lo, in un serie derivational. Si le adjectivo marin es registrate, isto permitte prender con illo le composito submarin, le derivato marinero, e le forma mar que lo precede. Naturalmente nulle parola pote introducer con se derivatos que non es clarmente recognoscibile como tales. Ben que le adjectivo marin ha un derivato substantival marina, iste parola non appare in le Dictionario como un derivato de marin proque nemo recognoscera le signification de marina super le base de su parentato con le adjectivo marin in conjunction con le termination -a. Le vocabulo marina es in le vocabulario per proprie derecto. Illo es international in le requirite senso per se.

In order to establish a rule that every word that enters the international vocabulary can carry with it all related formations differing from it by an element of distinct and logical value, a list of standard affixes with standardized forms and standardized meanings must be provided. The selection of these affixes was made possible by a study of the complete assemblies of etymological families previously mentioned.

A fin de establir un regula que cata parola que entra in le vocabulario international pote apportar con se omne formationes parentate differente de illo per un elemento de distincte e logic valor, un lista de affixos standard con formas standardisate e significationes standardisate debe esser providite. Le selection de iste affixos esseva possibilisate per un studio del collectiones complete de familias etymologic previemente mentionate.

For the purposes of this Dictionary all the affixes here listed have been considered active or autonomous. That is to say, any word – even though it occur in only one of the contributing languages – is listed in the Dictionary if it is built by means of one of them on a base in full international standing. Every active affix is represented in the Dictionary by a separate entry which includes a full analysis of its meaning or meanings. Inversely, every affix represented by a separate entry in the Dictionary is thereby identified as an active one.

Pro le objectivo del Dictionario omne affixos hic presentate es considerate active o autonome. Isto es, omne parola – mesmo si illo se trova solmente in un del linguas contribuente – es inserite in le Dictionario si illo es formate per medio de un de istos super un base de complete establimento international. Cata affixo active es representate in le Dictionario per un separate entrata que include un complete analysis de su signification o significationes. Inversemente, cata affixo representate per un separate entrata in le Dictionario es assi identificate como un affixo active.

List of Active Affixes

Lista de affixos active

a- -amento ante- -ata -ator
-abile amphi- anti- -ate -atori
ad- an- -antia -astra -atoria
-ada -an apo- -astro -atorio
-age ana- -ar -ation -atura
-al -ano -ari -ative auto-
-alia -ante -ario -ato cata-
circum- -ette -ific -ition -osis
co- -etto -ificar -itis -otic
con- ex- -imento -itive para-
contra- extra- in- -itor per-
dia- hyper- -in -itori peri-
dis- hypo- -ina -itoria post-
dys- -ia inter- -itorio pre-
en- -ian intra- -itude pro-
-ente -iano intro- -itura re-
-entia -ibile -ion -ive retro-
epi- -ic -isar meta- sub-
-eria -ica -ismo mis- super-
-ero -ico -issime non- syn-
-esc -iente -issimo -oide trans-
-ese -ientia -ista -or ultra-
-essa -iera -ita -ori -ura
-eto -iero -itate -orio vice-
-etta -ifere -ite -ose  

As for compounds, every formation is considered active (or autonomous) if both elements constituting the compound occur in other compounds of full internationality which thus serve as models. The international words telegraphia and microscopio can carry a formation like micrographia into the international vocabulary as a logical, self-explanatory compound provided it is found represented in at least one of the contributing languages.

Quanto a compositos, cata formation es considerate active o autonome, si le elementos que constitue le composito, occurre in altere compositos de plen internationalitate, le quales assi servi como patronos. Le parolas international telegraphia e microscopio pote supportar un formation como micrographia in le vocabulario international como un logic e evidente composito sub le condition que illo se trova in al minus un del linguas contribuente.

The compounds thus given active standing include the type portamoneta 'purse' which consists of a verb form (conveniently described as the infinitive deprived of its final -r) plus a noun. The meaning of the compound follows the pattern, "a thing or person that is to perform the action expressed by the first element in regard to an object represented by the second element." The second element may be singular or plural in form depending on the logic of the situation. If, as in guardacostas 'coastguard,' the second element is given in the plural, the pluralization of the compound produces no distinct form. 'Coastguards' is still guardacostas.

Le compositos talmente ponite in un stato active, include le typo portamoneta que consiste de un forma verbal (commodemente describite como le infinitivo private del -r final) prefigite a un substantivo. Le signification del composito es definite per le phrase “un cosa o persona destinate a exercer le action exprimite per le prime elemento con respecto a un objecto representate per le secunde elemento”. Le secunde elemento pote esser in le forma singular o plural dependente del logica del caso. In le caso, como in guardacostas ‘coastguard’, que le secunde elemento es date in le forma plural, le composito pluralisate non obtene un forma distincte. ‘Coastguards’ es etiam guardacostas.

The inclusion of all types of compounds in the Dictionary has not been carried as far as in the case of affix formations.

Le insertion de omne typos de compositos in le Dictionario non esseva complite tanto extensivemente como in le caso del formationes con affixos.

If, within the limits noted, a consistent effort was made to exhaust derivational series and incorporate all their links in the Dictionary, the families in which the words of the international vocabulary are presented do not of necessity constitute etymological families in the broad sense of the term. The international vocabulary is based on the vocabulary of a series of contributing languages but is not identical with them. In this sense English is based on Western Germanic (as is German) without being identical with it. And as, for instance, the English word dollar is not, in English terms, a derivative from the word dale although in terms of West Germanic such an etymological interrelation is a fact, so there are word groups in the international language which may very well be etymologically interrelated in terms of the Romance languages or Latin or Greek without therefore being interrelated within the framework of the international vocabulary. An instance of this sort is the international word prision which constitutes a word family by itself despite the fact that it is-ultimately – by way of the Romance languages and Latin – related to the international word prender.

Si, intra le confinios definite, un effortio consistente esseva facite pro exhaurir series derivational e pro incorporar omne lor elementos in le Dictionario, le familias in le quales le parolas del vocabulario international se presenta, non necessarimente constitue familias etymologic in le large senso del termino. Le vocabulario international se basa super un gruppo de linguas contribuente sed non es identic con illos. In iste senso le anglese ha su base super germanico occidental (como etiam germano) sin esser identic con illo. E como, per exemplo, le parola anglese dollar non es, in le conception anglese, un derivation del vocabulo dale, ben que secundo un conception west-germanic un tal interrelation etymologic es un facto, assi il ha gruppos de parolas in le lingua international le quales ben pote haber un interrelation etymologic secundo le conception del linguas romance o del latino o del greco sin haber pro isto un interrelation intra le quadro del vocabulario international. Un specimen de iste sorta es le parola international prision que constitue un familia de parolas per se malgrado le facto que illo es ultimemente – per le moda del linguas romance e latino – parentate al parola international prender.

Free Formation. – Among the word families in the Dictionary there are naturally not a few which consist of one single word. They are in a sense potential families. Although the present Dictionary does not include words totally devoid of support in the contributing source languages, there is no reason why the user should not operate freely with the derivational and compounding devices placed at his disposal. He may thus expand single-word families to fuller representation in exactly the manner in which he may add newer formations to any of the larger groups. He may, for example, take the word jada 'jade' and derive from it the verb jadificar 'to transform into, make look like, jade,' just as he may use the word pluralista 'pluralist' to form the adjective pluralistic. Nothing can prevent him from making such words except the worry that he would not know what to do with them. He may go farther and form such monsters as jadification and jadificational or pluralisticitate. To be sure, there are psycho-linguistic blocks (rooted in Romance tradition and usage) which will prevent the majority of users from forming such words as well as others of the theoretically altogether possible type of jadal or pluralistal.

Formation libere. – Inter le familias de parolas in le Dictionario il ha naturalmente non pauches que consiste de un singule parola. Illos es in un certe senso familias potential. Ben que le presente Dictionario non contine parolas toto sin ulle supporto in le contribuente linguas fonte, il ha nulle ration pro le qual un usator non deberea liberemente operar con modos derivational e compositori que es disponibile a ille. Assi ille pote expander familias de un singule parola a un representation plus ample exactemente in le maniera in que ille pote adder nove formationes a qualcunque del gruppos plus grande. Per exemplo, ille pote prender le parola jada e derivar de isto le verbo jadificar ‘transformar a o render similar a jada’, precisemente como ille pote usar le parola pluralista pro formar le adjectivo pluralistic. Nihil pote impedir a ille facer tal parolas excepte le vexation que ille non saperea lo que facer con illos. Ille poterea continuar e formar tal monstruositates como jadification e jadificational o pluralisticitate. In veritate, il ha impedimentos psycholinguistic (radicate in le tradition e usage romance) que retene le majoritate del usatores de formar tal parolas como etiam alteres del typo, al fin possibile, de jadal o pluralistal.

The Dictionary includes a fair number of doublets which cannot be kept out of the international vocabulary because they happen to be international. Most of them owe their occurrence to the principle of complete derivational series. There is for instance the international word vindication which carries with it the infinitive vindicar supported both by English 'to vindicate' and international derivatives and compounds of the type vindication, revindicar, etc. These forms having been established and included in the international vocabulary, the contributing languages present the additional correspondence French, English vengeance, Spanish venganza, which justifies the adoption of a doublet verb vengiar. Since the Dictionary is not meant to legislate within the frame of what has been described as the international vocabulary, it must refrain from expressing a preference in favor of one of two equally international forms of the same word. The user may take his choice. Similar consequences result from the principle that the deriving stem of a particular series of words determines the form of the base word. Both iridescentia and irisation are fully supported international words. The former carries with it the base form iride 'iris' (supported by Italian); the latter would justify the inclusion of iris even if it were not international in itself. Hence the doublet iris-iride.

Le Dictionario contine un considerabile numero de duplettos que on non pote evitar in le vocabulario international proque al fin illos es international. Le major parte de illos debe lor presentia al principio del complete series derivational. Per exemplo, il ha le parola international vindication que introduce con se le infinitivo vindicar supportate e per anglese ‘to vindicate’ e per derivationes e compositos del typo vindication, revindicar, etc. Durante que iste formas ha essite establite e inserite in le vocabulario international, le linguas contribuente presenta le correspondentia additional: francese e anglese vengeance, espaniol venganza, lo que justifica le adoption de un verbo-dupletto vengiar. Post que le Dictionario non es destinate a legislar intra le quadro de lo que ha essite describite como le vocabulario international, illo debe retener se de enunciar un preferentia in favor de un del duo formas equalmente international del mesme vocabulo. Al usator es admittite facer su election. Consequentias similar resulta del principio que le radice de que es derivate un serie particular de parolas, determina le forma del vocabulo basic. E iridescentia e irisation es parolas international plenmente supportate. Le prime apporta con se le forma basic iride (supportate per italiano); le altere justificarea le adoption de iris mesmo si isto non esseva international solmente per se. Pro isto le dupletto iris-iride.

The endeavor to make this a comprehensive dictionary of the international vocabulary implied an open-minded attitude toward previous auxiliary language proposals. The most important effects of this attitude fall in the domain of grammar rather than of lexicography. However, the two domains meet in their common interest in certain types of words with predominantly grammatical functions. Several older auxiliary-language systems operate with forms, especially of conjunctions, prepositions, pronouns, and nonderived adverbs, which do not appear to be incompatible with the principles of assemblage adopted for this Dictionary. All such forms have been included. They are given in brackets; the interlinguistic systems from which they were taken have not been identified.

Le tentativa a facer isto un dictionario comprehensive del vocabulario international implicava un attitude liberal verso previe proponimentos de linguas auxiliar. Le effectos le plus importante de iste attitude se trova in le dominio del grammatica plus tosto que in illo del lexicographia. Totevia, le duo dominios se incontra in lor interesse commun in certe typos de parolas con functiones ante toto grammatical. Plure systemas de linguas auxiliar del passato functiona con formas, specialmente conjunctiones, prepositiones, pronomines e adverbios non-derivate, que se monstra non esser incompatibile con le principios de compilation acceptate pro le Dictionario. Omne tal formas ha essite inserite. Illos es indicate in parentheses quadrate (sin identification del systemas interlinguistic del quales illos esseva prendite).

Acknowledgments. – The completion of this Dictionary brings to a close a major phase in the history of the International Auxiliary Language Association. It is hard to say when precisely the project was started, for many of the ideas used in its execution and also a number of independent studies from which some valuable raw material could be derived reach back by a decade or more and were not necessarily conceived in anticipation of the use we have made of them. To their authors and compilers we wish to express our sense of obligation and gratitude.

Recognoscentias. – Le completion de iste Dictionario conclude un phase major in le historia del International Auxiliary Language Association. Il es difficile dicer quando precisemente le projecto esseva lanceate, nam multes del ideas usate in su execution e etiam un numero de studios independente ex le quales alicun materia prime de valor poteva esser derivate attinge retro per un decennio o plus e non necessarimente esseva concipite in anticipation del uso que nos ha facite de illos. A lor autores e compilatores nos vole exprimer nostre sentimento de obligation e gratitude.

As the present director of IALA's interlinguistic research I am happy to express my appreciation of the efforts of my predecessors. Very essential portions of the groundwork on which we have built were laid out by Mr. E. Clark Stillman whom I feel privileged to have as a friend and whom I am eager to acknowledge as a teacher in the field of interlinguistics. The Dictionary is likewise indebted to a number of fundamental ideas originally formulated by Dr. Andre Martinet.

Como le director presente del recerca interlinguistic de IALA io es felice de exprimer mi appreciation del effortios de mi predecessores. Portiones de labor fundamental multo essential super le qual nos ha edificate esseva facite per sr. E. Clark Stillman que io me senti privilegiate de haber como amico e que io desira recognoscer como un inseniator in le campo de interlinguistica. Equalmente le Dictionario es indebitate a un numero de ideas fundamental originalmente formulate per dr. André Martinet.

Among the authors of various projects furthered or undertaken by IALA in the past, it is especially Miss Helen S. Eaton whose indirect contributions to the present work could be observed and were appreciated by every staff worker at all times during the actual preparation of the final printer's manuscript. This is not merely a reference to Miss Eaton's published Semantic Frequency List but also to various manuscript studies which are being preserved under her name in the IALA archives.

Inter le autores de varie projectos supportate o interprendite per IALA in le passato, il es specialmente srta. Helen S. Eaton cuje contributiones indirecte pro nostre obra presente poteva esser observate e esseva appreciate per omne empleatos de equipa a tote le tempores durante le preparation actual del manuscripto final pro le imprimeria. Isto non es solmente un referentia al Semantic Frequency List de srta. Eaton sed etiam a varie studios in manuscripto que es preservate sub su nomine in le archivos de IALA.

It has often been remarked that the outline of a new auxiliary-language system is little more than a lengthy weekend job. The compilation of a dictionary is a bird of a different feather. It exceeds the productive capacity of a weekend and possibly that of a lifetime. This Dictionary, at any rate, cannot be imagined as the work of a single author. It represents staff work and staff collaboration. As I list the names of the members of IALA's past and present Research Staff in so far as they have been connected with the various stages through which this work had to pass, each one will know for himself in what respect his efforts were especially important and hence especially valued. Not thanks but warm appreciation to Dr. Dora Berger, Mr. Erich Berger, Mrs. Chassia Topaze Veldts Mr. Francis H. Heldt, Dr. Christine Meyer, Mr. Nikolai Rabeneck, Dr. Leonie Sachs, Mr. Louis Sibuet, and Dr. Bernhard Valentini.

On ha sovente remarcate que le schizzo de un nove systema de lingua auxiliar es un obra de pauco plus que un fin de septimana prolongate. Le compilation de un dictionario es un altere cosa. Illo excede le capacitate productive de un fin de septimana e forsan illo de un tote vita. In omne caso on non pote imaginar iste Dictionario como le obra de un singule autor. Illo representa labor e collaboration de equipa. Quando io presenta un lista del membros del previe e presente Equipa de Recerca de IALA in tanto que illes ha essite connectite con le varie stadios sin qualcunque referentia a punctos de partita in anglese o in alicun altere lingua particular per le quales iste obra debeva passar, cata uno va ipse saper in qual respecto su effortios esseva specialmente importante e pro isto specialmente appreciate. Non gratias sed appreciation calide a dr. Dora Berger, sr. Erich Berger, sra. Chassia Topaze Heldt, sr. Francis H. Heldt, dr. Christine Meyer, sr. Nikolai Rabeneck, dr. Leonie Sachs, sr. Louis Sibuet e dr. Bernhard Valentini.

The manuscript of this Dictionary was going through the last stages of its editorial revision when Mrs. Alice V. Morris died on August 15, 1950. For years Mrs. Morris' interest in the progress of the work of the Association had found expression in a most active participation in all our efforts. She was the Chairman of IALA's Research Division but this position did not prevent her from working simultaneously as the most devoted and tireless member of the Association's Research Staff. Before her last illness circumscribed the extent of Mrs. Morris' linguistic investigations, most of her work was performed in close collaboration with her studious and widely-informed assistant, Mr. Hugh E. Blair, who subsequently joined IALA's general Research Staff. This project has profited greatly by Mr. Blair's unrelenting labor and ever-pertinent criticism.

Le manuscripto de iste Dictionario esseva in le ultime stadios de su revision editorial quando sra. Alice V. Morris moriva le 15 de augusto 1950. Durante annos le interesse de sra. Morris al labor del Association habeva trovate expression in un participation extrememente active in omne nostre effortios. Illa esseva le presidente del Division de Recerca de IALA sed iste position non la impediva de laborar simultaneemente como le plus devote e infatigabile membro del Equipa de Recerca del Association. Ante que su ultime maladia restringeva le extension de investigationes linguistic de sra. Morris, le majoritate de su labor esseva exequite in collaboration intime con su studiose e largemente informate assistente, sr. Hugh E. Blair, qui subsequentemente jungeva se al general Equipa de Recerca de IALA. Iste projecto ha profitate grandemente del labor infatigabile e del criticismo semper pertinente de sr. Blair.

Mrs. Mary Bray, Executive Director of IALA, has never shunned the extra work entailed by our calling on her for editorial advice and practical help far beyond the limits of her administrative duties. Her spirit of joyful collaboration has ironed out many a technical and non-technical difficulty. Specifically she has organized for us a clerical staff of untiring devotion whose high morale survived undaunted through many a dreary hour. May our clerical workers – Miss Louise Engelke, Mrs. Patricia Walsh Galvin, Miss Ethel Hanson, and Mrs. Margaret Timm – look upon this Dictionary as their work which in a very important sense it is.

Sra. Mary Bray, director executive de IALA, ha nunquam evitate le extra labor necessitate per nostre demandas a illa de consilios editorial e adjuta practic multo ultra le limites de su obligationes administrative. Su spirito de collaboration gaudiose ha solvite multe difficultates technic e non-technic. Specificamente illa ha organisate pro nos un personal de bureau de devotion infatigabile cuje alte moral superviveva intrepidemente mesmo a horas discoragiante. Que iste nostre assistentes – srta. Louise Engelke, sra. Patricia Walsh Galvin, srta. Ethel Hanson e sra. Margaret Timm – va considerar iste Dictionario como lor obra, lo que illo es in un senso multo importante.

We cannot release this work to the public without inviting the constructive criticism of practical and theoretical interlinguists in all parts of the world. This applies not only to technical flaws and errors which seem unavoidable in a work of this scope and which we shall be glad to correct in future editions. It is meant particularly to refer to questions of methodology and technique of presentation and also to guiding ideas which have a bearing on the results obtained. Let us broaden this appeal for critical collaboration and address it likewise to the student of comparative and general linguistics. Linguistic research supplied the interlinguistic methodology which produced this Dictionary. As the linguist discovers its uses, may he also discover that interlinguistics is that branch of his science where abstract scholarship and practical idealism merge.

Nos non pote lassar iste obra al publico sin invitar le criticas constructive de interlinguistas practic e theoretic in omne partes del mundo. Isto non solmente concerne imperfectiones e errores technic que sembla inevitabile in un obra de iste campo e le quales nos con placer va corriger in editiones futur. Illo particularmente refere a questiones de methodologia e technica de presentation e etiam a ideas guidante que ha influentia al resultatos obtenite. E pro allargar iste appello pro collaboration critic nos lo adressa etiam al studente de linguistica comparative e general. Recerca linguistic forniva le methodologia interlinguistic que produceva iste Dictionario. Quando le linguista discoperi su usos, que ille discoperi etiam que interlinguistica es le branca de su scientia ubi erudition abstracte e idealismo practic se fusiona.

ALEXANDER GODE

ALEXANDER GODE

(traduction: Karel Wilgenhof, revidite per Piet Cleij e Bent Andersen)

Spelling and Pronunciation

Ortographia e Pronunciation

Spelling is written form; pronunciation is voiced form. In the international vocabulary, spelling and pronunciation – like forms – represent the consensus of the source languages. Both are governed by prototype rules evolved from the contributing variants. The resulting system of orthography makes use of the conventional twenty-six letters of the Roman alphabet without special diacritical signs or accent marks. The norm of pronunciation is, generally speaking, "continental." Its values are elastic within type limits, or technically expressed, it permits phonemic variations of sounds not only under the influence of neighboring sounds but also as an effect of the native speech habits of individuals of various language backgrounds.

The English speaker should guard against his native tendency to merge all unstressed vowels in the neutral sound of a in China. His normal native pronunciation of b, d, f, k, l, m, p, ph, qu, v, w, and z agrees with the international norm. All other symbols and sounds are tabulated below.

  • a like a in 'father';
  • c before e, i, y like ts in 'hats' (or, optionally, like c in 'city'); otherwise like c in 'cats'; ch like ch in 'echo, chrome';
  • e like e in 'met';
  • g like g in 'good';
  • h as in English (or, optionally, silent); after r and t, silent;
  • i like i in 'machine'; when unstressed before a vowel, like i in 'onion' or in 'phobia'); e.g. bile, biliose, Marie;
  • j like z in 'azure' (or, optionally, like g in 'gem' or like y in 'yes');
  • o like o in 'obey';
  • r like rr in 'merry' or, better, like r in Spanish 'care';
  • s like s in 'stay'; between vowels, the same (or, optionally, like s in 'these'); e.g. sparse, abstruse, accusativo;
  • t as in English; ti before vowels, unless stressed or preceded by s, like tsy in 'he gets you' (or, optionally, like sy in 'we pass you' or like ty in 'we let you'); e.g. actor, action, garantia, question;
  • u like u in 'plural'; when unstressed before a vowel, like u in 'persuade' or in 'superfluous'; e.g. plural, persuader, superflue;
  • x like x in fox; between vowels, the same (or, optionally, like x in exact);
  • y unstressed before vowels like y in 'yes'; otherwise like i in 'machine'; e.g. Yugoslavia, typo.

Pronunciations deviating from these norms are indicated in the Dictionary by a simple system of respelling. In it the normal sound values of the interlingua are to be assumed. The digraph ch stands frequently for the sound of sh in English and has been respelled as sh; e.g. choc (sh-). The combination gi often represents the sound of z in azure. It has been respelled j; e.g. avantagiose (-ajo-). Simple g has this sound and hence this respelling in the suffix -age; e.g. avantage (-aje).

The diphthong eu stands for a combination of the normal interlingua sounds of e and u. Similarly, ai stands for a plus i as in kaiser; au for a plus u as in kraut. – Double consonants need not be distinguished in pronunciation from simple consonants. – The double consonant ss, however, is always voiceless like ss in 'miss.' The sounds of g and k assimilate a preceding n as in English.

Unassimilated guest words, that is, foreign or borrowed words which are identified in the Dictionary as to their origin, retain the pronunciation and spelling of the language of origin. The original diacritical signs are omitted when the languages which have borrowed such words dispense with them too. They do so when the resulting simplified spelling suffices to suggest the intended pronunciation; e.g. defaite for French défaite, but kümmel as in German.

The main stress is normally on the vowel before the last consonant. Words ending in -le, -ne, -re preceded by a vowel have the stress on the third syllable from the end; e.g. fragile, ordine, tempore. In words formed with the suffixes -ic, -ica, -ico, -ide, -ido, -ula, and -ulo, the stress falls on the syllable preceding the suffix. The suffixes -ific, -ifico are stressed on the first i.

Deviations from this system are covered in the Dictionary by respelling with stress marks; e.g. abbatia (-ía), formica (-íca), thermometro (-ó-).

While syllabification may be handled according to derivation, usage in the source languages suggests that preference be given to syllabification according to pronunciation. This means that single consonants belong with the following syllable except for x which stays with the preceding syllable; e.g. ex-a-mi-na-tor. Consonant groups are divided with the important restriction that l and r cannot be separated from preceding b, c, ch, d, f, g, p, ph, t, th, and v; e.g. al-le-gre. The combinations qu, gu, and su are likewise indivisible.

Explanatory Notes

[...]


Introduction to the Interlingua-English Dictionary

By Alexander Gode / per Alexander Gode.

Traducite in interlingua per Karel Wilgenhof, revidite per Piet Cleij e Bent Andersen.

Fontes: UMI (anglese), UMI (interlingua), AFIL (Association Finlandese pro Interlingua).

A summary / un summario per Ruud Harmsen, julio/augusto 2020.