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It also makes the language more difficult to pronounce for me, being a native speaker of Dutch. My language does have [s] and [S] too, but [S] is not very frequent, and it may even be a combinatory variant of [s] when followed by [j], instead of a separate phoneme. So assimilations, which in Portuguese do not occur between these sounds, are difficult to avoid for me, unless I practice examples many times.


But it was just an example. It’s just that it would be much easier if dc took its calculation instructions not only from stdin but also as command line arguments.

What I want

The meaning of the Arabic word halal is ‘(that which is) allowed, permitted or permissible’. Possible transcriptions of the word include ħalâl, ḥalāl and ħala:l.

Halal and haram

Only if a file ends up with zero names, and no process still has the file open, is it actually deleted or removed. Or as the manual page to unlink(2) (which can be invoked by the command man 2 unlink) so nicely puts it: “all resources associated with the file are reclaimed.

Fixing a hole where the rain gets in

In principle, a non-central bank too could create money in advance, before supplying it to the borrower. Then the bank would prepare a loan, including its debit and its credit side, before a borrowing client is known. That is a loan to and from the bank itself, with the on demand money in a transaction account owned by the bank and administered by the bank itself. It’s possible, but it makes no sense.

So I maintain what I stated in my previous article: a money creating entity cannot use that money for its own benefit. That’s because created money spent is money borrowed. Borrowed from those it is paid out to.

Those who think money creation is a cheap form of financing, are only fooling themselves.

Seigniorage (1)

Lezíria is one of those many Iberic words of Arabic origin. It means tract of marshy land alongside a river (source: Michaelis pt-en), but also (Porto Editora) ínsula no meio de um rio, formada de lodos e detritos.

Garça, gaibéu, Al-Jaziira, Algeria

In the second section I made detailed calculations about how money creation can happen repeatedly, and eventually results in a much greater money supply than the amount of cash originally available.

Unlimited money creation?

My next idea was a feline approach also known as the cat method, as follows:

Fixing a hole where the rain gets in

Some people switch from one style to the other, others - most - use one style consistently. This seems to be a matter of personal preference. But even those who are very consistent sometimes switch: on four Cristina Branco records I found only one occurrence of a ‘double’ lingual r ©, which is again uvular © in a different recording of the same song. Text: Da água que não correu (Of the water that didn’t flow).
Dulce Pontes © sometimes does it too, and so did Amália Rodrigues: lingual © here, but uvular © in the same word ‘rua’ elsewhere. Also in roda ©.

The uvular r is often more fricative in Brazil than in Portugal; for more details see note 23, item 5.

Uvular and lingual 'double' r

The problem with buying a house with a promise of instalments over a period of many years, is that builders build the house within months and need their wages right then. Suppliers of building materials and building tools and machines also want to be paid at short notice.

The same is true in the case the house is not newly built, but already in existence: the former owner needs the full payment at once, in order to redeem her/his own mortgage and/or buy a different house for themselves.

Buying a house with a promise

While writing this, I get this triviality feeling again. It’s not the first time, look here and here for example. But it seems I really must explain, because many people these days think barter trading is fun and propose to re-introduce it.

Representing all value?

So we could also say that money creation is so ill-understood by many, because they do not properly distinguish between the various functions of money. Money creation involves an enlargement of the money supply, and in the notion of money supply, money is only looked at as a medium of exchange, not in any of its other possible roles.

What is money?

In a different context, seigniorage can also denote the difference between interest yield and investment results, of assets that serve as the counter value of cash and money of account, and the costs of money production, distribution and management.

Seigniorage (1)

Israelis and Palestinians have equal rights to Israel/Palestine. They are predestined to live together in that land, maybe as two autonomous states, better still as two peoples in a common state, living together peacefully.


While writing the page How to tune a guitar I noticed a strange mistake in my English vocabulary: I always thought that the two-pronged metal device to tune musical instruments was called ‘pitchfork’ in English.

Tuning fork, pitchfork?

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