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So I’d expect that for practical reasons, the CMI would also assign a dollar value to each promissory obligation, established as it is created.

CMI, and then?

But this is not so! (but sometimes it is!)
In this situation, the inaudible vowel rears its beautiful head, and turns the final s of "esses" into [z]. This is because the phoneme is between vowels now, and this rule, as you might recall, extends over word boundaries. So the correct pronunciation is: [es1z1SforsuS] ©

In quick speech, the vowels will become very short, and might eventually disappear again, but they leave their traces by influencing the consonants: [eszSforsS] or with a devoiced (but still lax!) [z]: [essSforsS]. Not surprising that this language tends to be difficult to understand for the uninitiated listener, expecting a "normal" European language.

Word-initial es

This was the rocky tunnel, with sharp, stinging ridges, and very dark. At first, he saw nothing, later, with eyes adapted to the darkness, some shadows, then nothing again. The rocks were wet and slippery, and he wasn’t sure whether it was blood or water or a mixture dripping down his knees. Soon he began to think he must be near the end, but every time he thought that he also remembered the previous time, and the memories seemed longer and longer ago. The ever lower ceiling made it undoable to walk, and creeping was all that remained.

So he went – Chapter 3

Empurrar is not a real Portuguese word! It is a loan word from Spanish empujar. Apparently the Portuguese imitated the Spanish j, which sounds as ch in Scottish loch and German Bach, with their French-like uvular rr, which is as close as they can get.
The ‘real’ Portuguese word for this is ‘empuxar’, which actually exists too. This of course comes very close to the opposite: puxar.
Source: Porto Editora

Puxar, but don't push

Election threshold

An intermediate system between proportional representation and majority voting in districts, is proportionalism with an election threshold. Germany has this voting system.

With an election threshold, even small parties can win seats in parliament, but only if they get, for example, more than 5 percent of the votes.

This systems promotes clarity and governability. Large minorities can be heard, but the small ones are not.

A more effective democracy

Pythagoras (in Greek: Πυθαγόρας) accepted only factors 2 (octave) and 3 (fifth) for these ratios. That does produce elegant ratios, except in somewhat more complete scales, when rather large integers appear in the frequency ratios. For example, a major third, built from two major seconds of 9:8, gets the ratio 81:64 (or 407.82 cents). A must nicer ratio is 5:4, also a major third, at 386.31 cents. But this requires the factor 5, which Πυθαγόρας did not want. Aristoxenos (Αριστόξενος in Greek) did.

Arabic music takes this a step further: it also uses the factor 11. (And 7, or so they say, but I have never heard that myself. I have found the factor 17; see below.) Three tones with frequency ratios 10:11:12 produce intervals of 165.00 and 150.64 cents, which is approximately 150, or one and a half semitones. Together that clearly makes 315.64, which corresponds to the minor third ratio of 6:5. By combining these intervals with the more "common" ones in several ways, we get the maqâmât in this aforementioned link.

Amsterdam is a melodious city

The traditional economic systems, capitalism and communism, in their pure form both fail to recognize the non-idealistic nature of man. Communism assumes that everybody will work for the community out of idealism. The result is stagnation. Pure capitalism believes the free market will bring everyone prosperity and employment. In reality many are exploited, or are out of work.


In the first section I showed that money creation does exist, and that it happens when a bank grants a credit, using money that is in a demand deposit. However, that money is not created in the sense that it comes from nowhere, just like that, as if it were money out of thin air. Instead, the money that the borrower borrows from the bank, was always first deposited there by some other bank client.

Unlimited money creation?

I can never remember those Latin expressions, partly because my 1968-1969 grammar school adventure failed miserably after only one year, so I continued not learning Latin. But I can look them up:

Both are untrue, when applied to money creation and to wealth differences. There is no causal link. They are fallacies.

Different definition, same system

The use of “haver” as an auxiliary verb, however, is obsolete in Portuguese. The verb “ter” has taken over. This is a clear difference between Portuguese and other Romance languages: Spanish still uses “haber” for that, as does Italian (“avere”) and French (“avoir”). In these languages, the first person of the simple perfect can be used as an auxiliary, but not in Portuguese.

Eu houve? Doesn't exist!

OK, so I can do business, be paid by promises, which is money, save that money before the promise to pay is fulfilled, and use that to pay in the supermarket.

Sounds good, I like it! And the supermarket can do the same:

Much clearer now!

where we read:

E, depois que amanheceu, não houvemos vista dele nem dos outros navios;
Ao domingo seguinte, em amanhecendo, houvemos vista da Ilha do Sal, e logo daí a uma hora houvemos vista de três navios, os quais fomos demandar; [...]

Eu houve? Doesn't exist!

A bank loans existing money into circulation, i.e. loans are funded by deposits and shareholders’ money. Sometimes the funding for the loan initially comes from the borrower himself.

That is what the word ‘money’ means, in the ordinary, every day sense, which in fact is ‘value expressed as a dollar amount’.

Interest back into circulation

Now guess what? For pronouncing the name Benghazi there’s no need to make this effort!

Overzealous foreign pronunciation

An earlier version of my document used the similar, but not identical ASCII transcription scheme often referred to as IPA-ASCII, which was designed by Evan Kirshenbaum.

Below is a correspondence table of the two systems, limited to phonemic symbols used for Portuguese in my document, plus some phonetic symbols occasionally used for clarifications.
I might one day add a column with the real phonetic symbols, but that requires browsers that support Unicode.

Phonemic and phonetic symbols

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